Urban Open Space: Designing For User Needs
Research has shown that successful public spaces are ones that are responsive to the needs of their users, are democratic in their accessibility, and are meaningful for the larger community and society. While considerable research has been done on needs and conflicts in open space, no one document integrates all this knowledge and makes it available to professionals, students, and researchers.
Based on archival research; published case studies; site visits; and interviews with researchers, open space designers, managers, and users, Urban Open Space looks across several seminal studies to glean significant findings and design implications related to user needs and conflicts. It reviews and identifies those critical user needs that must be considered in the planning, design, and management of outdoor spaces, and synthesizes that knowledge into an accessible and useful document.
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active engagement addressing user needs American Society Architects areas Berens BPRC Bryant Park California Carr Central Park Cigliano comfort Community Design community gardens conflicts in open Cooper Marcus create critical design and management Design Case Study Design Research Association DESIGNING FOR USER environment Environmental Design Research Goltsman Graham Foundation Island Press issue-based case study issues Jan Gehl Land and Community Landscape Architecture Foundation landscape planning Laurie Olin Lawrence Halprin Leanne Rivlin maintenance Mark Francis Nager and Wentworth needs and conflicts neighborhood open space design park's parks and open Parks Council participation passive engagement past studies pedestrian playgrounds plazas Project for Public Public Land public open spaces redevelopment Society of Landscape Street Study Series successful public spaces Thompson Trust for Public urban design Urban Land Institute urban open spaces Urban Parks Institute Urban Wilds user conflicts user groups William Whyte York City York Public Library