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acceptable accommodation According action affordable agricultural apartheid approach appropriate areas attempts basic become benefits centres Chapter cities concept concerned contribute costs decision discussed economic effect evaluation example existing expected fact families given groups growth growth point homeland households housing human implementation important income increasing indicate individual industrial inequalities institutions interests involved issue labour land limited living major means methods migration necessary needs opportunities organisations participation people's person planners planning political poor population possible potential poverty principle probably problems programme projects reduce refers regard regional development Research residential responsibility result role rural rural development sector settlements shack Small social Society South Africa spatial squatter strategy structure Studies Sustainability Town units urban urbanisation various World
Page 263 - The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions.
Page 29 - First, they include certain minimum requirements of a family for private consumption: adequate food', shelter and clothing, as well as certain household equipment and furniture. Second, they include essential services provided by and for the community at large, such as safe drinking water, sanitation, public transport and health, educational and cultural facilities.
Page 25 - ... express one's self, freedom to investigate and seek for information, freedom to defend one's self, justice, fairness, honesty, orderliness in the group are examples of such preconditions for basic need satisfactions. Thwarting in these freedoms will be reacted to with a threat or emergency response. These conditions are not ends in themselves but they are almost so since they are so closely related to the basic needs, which are apparently the only ends in themselves. These conditions are defended...
Page 24 - Such conditions as freedom to speak, freedom to do what one wishes so long as no harm is done to others, freedom to express one's self, freedom to investigate and seek for information, freedom to defend one's self, justice, fairness, honesty, orderliness in the group are examples of such preconditions for basic need satisfactions.
Page 264 - Covenant recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions. The States Parties will take appropriate steps to ensure the realization of this right , recognizing to this effect the essential importance of international co-operation based on free consent.
Page 38 - The idea of citizen participation is a little like eating spinach: no one is against it in principle because it is good for you. Participation of the governed in their government is, in theory, the cornerstone of democracy — a revered idea that is vigorously applauded by virtually everyone. The applause is reduced to polite handclaps, however, when this principle is advocated by the...
Page 50 - ... injecting competition into service delivery," and "meeting the needs of the customer, not of the bureaucracy."3 Osborne and Gaebler argue that governments should give decisionmaking power back to the citizens: "What Americans do hunger for is more control over matters that directly affect their lives: public safety, their children's schools, the developers who want to change their neighborhood."4 Osborne and Gaebler stress the importance of customer choice and specifically call for vouchers in...
Page 83 - Participating in Benefit Sharing Sharing of benefit is the essential element that was left out in conventional growth oriented development strategies by assuming that the benefits of development would percolate to the majority. Since people's participation in benefit sharing means equitable sharing of the benefits of development, it may be looked upon as the heart of the new development strategy.
Page 27 - ... second, fundamental human needs (such as those contained in the system proposed) are the same in all cultures and in all historical periods. What changes, both over time and through cultures, is the way or the means by which the needs are satisfied.
Page 82 - As lack of enthusiasm and initiative is witnessed in decision-making on the part of poor masses, there is also very little participation by the majority and the poor in monitoring and evaluation at present. Monitoring is the continuous gathering of information on project inputs and objectives and on conditions and complementary activities that are critical to the success of the project.