Use Cases: Requirements in Context

Front Cover
Addison-Wesley, Mar 30, 2012 - Computers

This book describes how to gather and define software requirements using a process based on use cases. It shows systems analysts and designers how use cases can provide solutions to the most challenging requirements issues, resulting in effective, quality systems that meet the needs of users.

Use Cases, Second Edition: Requirements in Context describes a three-step method for establishing requirements—an iterative process that produces increasingly refined requirements. Drawing on their extensive, real-world experience, the authors offer a wealth of advice on use-case driven lifecycles, planning for change, and keeping on track. In addition, they include numerous detailed examples to illustrate practical applications.

This second edition incorporates the many advancements in use case methodology that have occurred over the past few years. Specifically, this new edition features major changes to the methodology's iterations, and the section on management reflects the faster-paced, more "chaordic" software lifecycles prominent today. In addition, the authors have included a new chapter on use case traceability issues and have revised the appendixes to show more clearly how use cases evolve.

The book opens with a brief introduction to use cases and the Unified Modeling Language (UML). It explains how use cases reduce the incidence of duplicate and inconsistent requirements, and how they facilitate the documentation process and communication among stakeholders.

The book shows you how to:

  • Describe the context of relationships and interactions between actors and applications using use case diagrams and scenarios
  • Specify functional and nonfunctional requirements
  • Create the candidate use case list
  • Break out detailed use cases and add detail to use case diagrams
  • Add triggers, preconditions, basic course of events, and exceptions to use cases
  • Manage the iterative/incremental use case driven project lifecycle
  • Trace back to use cases, nonfunctionals, and business rules
  • Avoid classic mistakes and pitfalls

The book also highlights numerous currently available tools, including use case name filters, the context matrix, user interface requirements, and the authors' own "hierarchy killer."

 

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Contents

632 Bring Focus to Each Use Case
111
633 Manage Scope Changes During This Iteration
112
634 Manage Risks and Assumptions
113
64 Tools
114
643 Identify Surplus Functionality Inside the Use Case
115
65 Deliverables
116
68 Summary
117
Managing Requirements and People
119

152 Joint Requirements Planning Sessions
16
153 ContractStyle Requirements Lists
17
154 Prototypes
19
16 Those Troublesome Requirements
20
Moving to Use Cases
21
21 Its All About Interactions
25
22 The Unified Modeling Language
27
221 Nine Diagrams
28
222 Extending the UML with Stereotyping
34
23 Introducing Use Cases Use Case Diagrams and Scenarios
35
231 The Goals of Use Cases
36
232 How Use Case Diagrams Show Relationships
38
233 The Use Case Template
42
234 Paths and Scenarios
46
24 Use Cases Apply Here
49
242 Use Cases for Requests for Proposals
50
25 Applying Use Cases to the Requirements Problem
51
A UseCaseDriven Approach to Requirements Gathering
53
33 Three Steps for Gathering Requirements
55
34 The Role of the Mission Vision Values
56
35 The Role of the Statement of Work
57
38 The Roles of Use Cases
59
384 Use Cases Discourage Premature Design
60
310 Managing Success
62
The Facade Iteration
63
411 Users
64
413 Industry Experts
65
415 User Management Personnel
66
42 Steps in the Facade Iteration
67
423 Get the Executive Sponsors Unique Viewpoint
69
424 Review the Business Process Definitions
71
426 Interview the Stakeholders
72
427 Create a Stakeholders List
73
4210 Collect and Document Nonfunctional Requirements
74
4211 Start the Business Rules Catalog
81
4215 Begin User Interface Storyboards
83
4216 Get Informal Approval from the Executive Sponsor
84
433 Use Case Name Filters
86
435 Verb Filter
87
436 Noun Filters
88
437 Packages as Placeholders for Functionality
89
4310 User Review
90
46 Context
91
The Filled Iteration
93
52 Steps
94
522 Create Filled Use Cases
96
523 Add Business Rules
101
524 Test the Filled Use Cases
102
525 Put Some Things Off
103
53 Tools
104
533 White Space Analysis Filter
105
537 Additional Use Cases
106
56 Context
107
Focused Iteration
109
62 What Are Focused Use Cases?
110
72 Waterfall Lifecycle Management
120
721 Nell and the Coffee Shop
121
722 Disadvantages of Waterfall
123
73 Alternatives to Waterfall
125
732 Spiral
126
734 Holistic IterativeIncremental HII
127
741 The Meaning of Iterative
128
742 The Meaning of Incremental
129
743 The Meaning of Holistic
130
744 The Meaning of Adaptivity
131
745 Complex Adaptive Systems
132
75 Process
133
76 Principles of the Holistic IterativeIncremental Software Lifecycle
135
761 Manage Requirements Not Tasks
136
762 The Important Goals Are the Business GoalsDates and Budgets
137
763 Think Like a BusinesspersonWhat Have You Done for Me Lately?
138
765 Cut the Job into Programs and Projects
141
766 Tie Everything Back to the Business
144
767 Create Demonstrable Deliverables
145
769 The Pieces Will Be Smaller Than You Think
146
7611 Forget about Baselines and Signoffs
147
7613 Calculate ReturnonInvestment in a New Way Using Portfolios
148
Requirements Traceability
149
81 Tracing Back to Use Cases
152
811 Analysis Model Traceability
153
813 CRC Card Session Traceability
154
817 Project Management Traceability
155
82 Tracing Back to Nonfunctionals
156
83 Tracing Back to Business Rules
157
Classic Mistakes
159
Make Them and Move On
160
The Case for Use Cases
173
101 Why Did Use Cases Win?
174
1012 Use Cases Are Traceable
175
1016 The Alternatives Are Awful
176
1022 Business Use Cases
178
103 Summary
181
Real Estate Management System
183
A2 The Use Cases
184
A21 The Actors
186
A22 Technical Requirements and Business Rules
187
A31 List of Use Cases
190
A4 Refining the Requirements
212
A41 Investment Returns Calculation
213
A42 Tightening Requirements
215
Integrated Systems
219
B3 Problem Description
221
B4 Solution Analysis
222
Instant Messaging Encryption
225
C2 The Use Cases
226
Order a Product from a Catalog
229
Bibliography
235
Index
237
Copyright

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About the author (2012)

Daryl Kulak is the president and CEO of Water-Logic Software (www.water-logic.com), an Internet business and technology consulting firm based in Columbus, Ohio. He is a graduate of the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT) in Edmonton, Alberta. During much of his seventeen-year career managing software development projects in the United States and Canada, Daryl has focused on use cases, iterative/incremental development, and component design. Eamonn Guiney is a consultant at NewtonPartners (www.newtonpartners.com), a company that provides management consulting and system integration services to the money management industry. He is based in Sacramento, California. Eamonn creates business systems using a variety of tools, particularly object-oriented methodologies and use cases.

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