Use of Force: The Practice of States Since World War II

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Penn State Press, Apr 4, 1997 - Political Science - 400 pages
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This book is among the few to develop in detail the proposition that international law on the subject of interstate force is better derived from practice than from treaties. Mark Weisburd assembles here a broad body of evidence to support practice-based rules of law on the subject of force.

Analyses of a particular use of force by a state against another state generally begin with the language of the Charter of the United Nations. This approach is seriously flawed, argues Weisburd. States do not, in fact, behave as the Charter requires. If the legal rule regulating the use of force is the rule of the Charter, then law is nearly irrelevant to the interstate use of force. However, treaties like the Charter are not the only source of public international law. Customary law, too, is binding on states. If state behavior can be shown to conform generally to what amount to tacit rules on the use of force, and if states generally enforce such rules against other states, then the resulting pattern of practice strongly supports the argument that the use of force is affected by law at a very practical level.

This work aims to demonstrate that such patterns exist and to explain their content. Weisburd discusses over one hundred interstate conflicts that took place from 1945 through 1991. He focuses on the behavior of the states using force and on the reaction of third parties to the use of force. He concentrates upon state practice rather than upon treaty law and does not assume a priori that any particular policy goal can be attributed to the international legal system, proceeding instead on the assumption that the system's goals can be determined only by examining the workings of the system.

 

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Contents

Yemeni Civil War 19621970
184
CubaVenezuela 1963 1966 1967
186
Omani Civil War 19651976
187
Chadian Civil Wars 19691972 19751993
188
Syriajordan 1970
196
TanzaniaUganda 1972
197
Mozambique Civil War 19751992
198
First Angolan Civil War 1975
200

IndonesiaNetherlands 19601962
33
IndiaPortugal 1961
35
SomaliaEthiopia 19751988
37
TanzaniaUganda 19781979
40
Socialist Republic of VietnamKampuchea 19781989
42
Soviet UnionAfghanistan 19791989
44
IraqIran 19801988
47
ArgentinaUnited Kingdom 1982
52
IraqKuwait 19901991
55
Analysis
58
WARS FOR THE INDEPENDENCE OF EUROPEAN COLONIES
63
FranceVietnam 19451954
64
NetherlandsIndonesia 19451949
68
FranceTunisia 19521956
70
FranceMorocco 19531956
71
FranceAlgeria 19541962
74
United KingdomCyprus 19551959
76
PortugalAngola Nationalists 19611974
77
PortugalGuineaBissau 19611974
79
BritainSouth Yemen 19631967
80
PortugalMozambique 19641974
82
South AfricaNamibia 19661989 South AfricaCuba Angola 19771989
85
RhodesiaZimbabwe Civil War 19661979
89
South AfricaBotswana Zimbabwe Zambia 1985 1986
92
Analysis
94
POSTIMPERIAL WARS
97
IndiaPakistan 19471948
98
IsraelArab States 19481949
100
Korean War 19501953
103
SomaliaEthiopia 19601964
107
SomaliaKenya 19631984
108
IndonesiaMalaysia 19631966
109
ArmeniaAzerbaijan 1988?
111
Wars in Former Yugoslavia 1991?
113
Analysis
116
CONTINUATION WARS
119
United States Republic of VietnamDemocratic Republic of Vietnam 19611975
120
TurkeyCyprus 19631967
128
PakistanIndia 1965
131
IsraelUAR Syria Jordan Iraq 1967
135
IsraelUAR Jordan Lebanon Syria 19671970
139
IsraelLebanon 19701975
141
Cambodian War 19701975
143
IndiaPakistan 1971
146
Egypt Syria Iraq Jordan Saudi Arabia MoroccoIsrael 1973
150
Events in Cyprus 1974
152
Interventions in Lebanon 19761991
155
IsraelTunisia 1985
166
CIVIL WARS WITH INTERNATIONAL ELEMENTS
170
Greek Civil War 19461949
171
NicaraguaCosta Rica 1948
174
United StatesIran 1953
176
NicaraguaCosta Rica 1955
177
PRCRepublic of China 1958
178
Laotian Civil War 19591975
179
United Nations Operations in the Republic of the Congo 19601964
182
Intervention in Zaire 1977
202
Libya AlgeriaTunisia 1980
203
Liberian Civil War 1989?
204
Analysis
206
MAINTENANCE OF SPHERES OF INFLUENCE
209
Soviet UnionHungary 1956
211
United StatesCuba 1961
213
United StatesSoviet Union Cuba 1962
215
FranceGabon 1964
219
Soviet Union et al Czechoslovakia 1967
224
FranceCentral African Empire 1979
226
United States Argentina HondurasNicaragua 19811988
227
Indian Intervention in Sri Lanka 19831990
232
United StatesGrenada 1983
234
United StatesPanama 1989
238
Analysis
240
NEOCOLONIAL WARS
243
Western Sahara 19731991
244
IndonesiaEast Timor 19751983
247
Analysis
251
LIMITED USES OF FORCE
252
United KingdomAlbania 1946
254
United KingdomYemen 1949
255
ThailandCambodia 19531962
256
United KingdomYemen 1957
257
EgyptSudan 1958
258
NicaraguaHonduras 1958
259
AfghanistanPakistan 1961
260
PRCIndia 1962
261
MoroccoAlgeria 1963
264
United States and Belgium in Congo 1964
266
PRCSoviet Union 1969
268
El SalvadorHonduras 1969
269
Yemen Arab RepublicPeoples Democratic Republic of Yemen 1972
271
PRCRepublic of Vietnam 1974
272
Burkina FasoMali 19741986
273
Lao Peoples Democratic RepublicThailand 19751988
274
IsraelUganda 1976
276
Interventions in Zaire 1978
277
EgyptLibya 1977
278
EgyptCyprus 1978
280
PDRYYAR 1979
284
United StatesIran 1980
285
PeruEcuador 1981
286
CameroonNigeria 1981
287
United StatesLibya 1981
289
ChadNigeria 1983
290
United StatesEgypt 1985
291
IsraelLibya 1986
292
United StatesLibya 1986
293
Analysis
297
SELFDEFENSE
304
CONCLUSIONS
308
State Practice and Formulations of the International Law of Force
315
Final Thoughts
318
Copyright

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About the author (1997)

A. Mark Weisburd is Professor of Law at the University of North Carolina.

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