Using Oil Spill Dispersants on the Sea
Committee on Effectiveness of Oil Spill Dispersants, Marine Board, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, National Research Council
National Academies Press, Jan 15, 1989 - Science - 331 pages
While major oil spills are rare, oil slicks can have disastrous environmental and economic consequences. This book summarizes research on the use of chemical dispersants: their effectiveness and limitations and the results of using them in different spill situations. Based on laboratory and field research as well as on actual case histories, this book contains a clear-cut set of recommendations for action, planning, and research. Of special interest is the chapter on the biological effects of oil itself and of oil treated with chemical dispersants.
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History and Issues
2 Chemistry and Physics of Dispersants and Dispersed Oil
3 Toxicological Testing of Dispersants and Dispersed Oil
4 IntermediateScale Experiments and Field Studies of Dispersants Applied to Oil Spills
Techniques Logistics Monitoring and Application Strategies
6 Technical Basis of Decision Making
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acute toxicity aircraft APPLICATION STRATEGIES APPLIED TO OIL Arctic Baffin Island Beaufort Sea benthic biodegradation biological boat chemically dispersed oil cleanup components copepods Corexit Cormack crude oil crustaceans dispersant application dispersant effectiveness dispersant formulations dispersant spraying dispersant-oil ratio dispersion of oil dissolved hydrocarbons ecological effects of dispersed effects of oil emulsion Environment Canada Environmental exposure factors field studies Finasol fluorometer habitats hydrocarbons increased intertidal Ixtoc laboratory studies larvae less lethal Lindblom Mackay marine McAuliffe measured mousse nominal concentrations nozzles offshore oil and dispersed oil concentrations oil dispersed oil droplets oil slick Oil Spill Oil Spill Conference oil-dispersant mixture oil-water organisms percent petroleum physically dispersed Pollution polychaetes ppm-hr private communication Proc Prudhoe Bay response samples seagrass seawater sediments sensitive solvents species spilled oil sublethal surfactants Torrey Canyon toxicity of dispersed turbulence untreated oil viscosity water column weathering