Using Intelligence Data for Environmental Needs: Balancing National Interests
In the post-cold-war era, there is a growing awareness that intelligence data such as imagery could contribute to environmental programs, management of natural resources, and even disaster relief. A key question facing policymakers and intelligence community managers is whether (and how) to balance routine unclassified environmental surveillance with traditional intelligence missions. This report discusses the stakeholders, interests, opportunities, and risks for the United States in greater use of intelligence data for environmental purposes by civil agencies, universities, and industry. After discussing alternative approaches to providing intelligence data for environmental uses and evaluation criteria, the authors offer summary observations, open questions, and recommendations on actions the U.S. government and the intelligence community should and should not take. An appendix includes three government policy statements on using intelligence data for environmental purposes.
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access to intelligence activities agery applications of intelligence archives Arctic budget capabilities CENR Central Intelligence civil agencies classiﬁed data collection commercial remote-sensing committees conﬂict congressional cooperation costs data for environmental datasets debates declassiﬁcation declassifying Department of Defense derived products difﬁcult Earth Observation System efforts environment environmental applications environmental data environmental issues environmental monitoring environmental purposes environmental research Environmental Working Group example ﬁrms ﬁrst funding gence data govemment imagery IMINT industry institutional Intelligence Agency intelligence community intelligence data intelligence missions intelligence reconnaissance systems intelligence systems intemational interests MASINT MEDEA military NASA national intelligence reconnaissance National Science national security community natural resources NOAA Observing System Ofﬁce potential beneﬁts priority private center programs release risks ronmental routine satellite scientiﬁc community scientiﬁc research scientists selection criteria SIGINT signiﬁcant space speciﬁc stakeholders technical Technology telligence tion U.S. Geological Survey U.S. government U.S. Navy unclassiﬁed unique users