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G Schafer 399 3 Cryopumps for application in science and technology
R G Linford and J C Spray 409 6 The design of very cheap sorption pumps
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accelerated active gas aluminium anode applications atoms backstreaming bake bakeout beam lines booster cathode surface chemical clean cold surface components cooled copper cryopumps Daresbury Laboratory deposition desorption efficiency diffusion pump discs effect electron beam electron bombardment emission energy etching Ferrofluidics field flange flow gases gauge head glow discharge glow discharge treatment helium high vacuum hydrocarbon hydrocarbon contamination hydrogen impact increased ion pump ionized leak liquid nitrogen magnetic mass spectrometer measurement metal molecular pump molecular sieve molecules operation outgassing oxide oxygen partial pressure particles Phys plasma polymerization positive ions probe produced pumping speed range reduced rotary pump rotor seal secondary electrons sheath shown in Figure sorption pumps specimen stage stainless steel storage ring substrate material substrate surface synchrotron radiation target temperature tion torr traps turbomolecular pumps ultimate pressure ultra-high vacuum vacuum system Vacuum/volume 28/number valves vapour pressure voltage