## Vacuum Engineering Calculations, Formulas, and Solved ExercisesThis book was written with two main objectives in mind—to summarize and organize the vast material of vacuum technology in sets of useful formulas, and to provide a collection of worked out exercises showing how to use these formulas for solving technological problems. It is an ideal reference source for those with little time to devote to a full mathematical treatment of the many problems issued in vacuum practice, but who have a working knowledge of the essentials of vacuum technology, elementary physics, and mathematics. This time saving book employs a problem-solving approach throughout, providing the methodology for computing vacuum parameters. References and solved exercises are appended to the end of each chapter. Key Features * Presents the thermal transpiration effect in vacuum gauges with application to capacitance manometers in vacuum metrology * Covers analytical-statistical calculation of conductances of vacuum elements * Examines the molecular flow of gas through short pipes and channels * Explains chocked and nonchocked laminar flow of gas through vacuum elements |

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### Contents

1 | |

Chapter 2 Real Gases | 29 |

Chapter 3 Kinetic Theory of Gases | 35 |

Chapter 4 Gas Flow in Components and Vacuum Systems | 76 |

Chapter 5 Steady Flow of Gas in the Viscous Range | 104 |

Chapter 6 Steady Flow of Gas in the Molecular Range | 127 |

Chapter 7 Steady Flow of Gas in the Transition Range | 171 |

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### Common terms and phrases

83.14 mbar liters aperture argon atm cm3 atmospheric pressure Boltzmann’s constant calculated from Eq circular cross section cm3 mol_l coefﬁcient constant Conversion Factors cylinder Diatomic diffusion pump dimensionless Dushman Equation ergs evacuated Exercise Figure flow rate g mol—1 gas ballast gas flow gas load gas molecules gases heat conductivity kg mol_l laminar flow leak listed in Table liters mol_l manometer mbar liters s_1 mean free path mol_1 see Table mol—l molar mass mole molec molecular conductance molecular flow Molecular transmission probability number density number of molecules oriﬁce partial pressure pipe of uniform port pumpdown pumping speed rate of gas ratio Santeler Solution species of gas speciﬁc outgassing rate speciﬁed Substitute system of units throughput Torr liters transmission probability Pr ultimate pressure uniform circular cross unit area universal gas constant vacuum components vacuum pump vacuum system values velocity vessel viscous water vapor