Vacuum Technology: Practice for Scientific Instruments

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Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 4, 2007 - Science - 353 pages
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Nanotechnology has reached a level where almost every new development and even every new product uses features of nanoscopic properties of materials. As a consequence, an enormous amount of scientific instruments is used in order to synthesize and analyze new structures and materials. Due to the surface sensitivity of such materials, many of these instruments require ultrahigh vacuum that has to be provided under extreme conditions like very high voltages.

In this book, Yoshimura provides a review of the UHV related development during the last decades. His very broad experience in the design enables him to present us this detailed reference. After a general description how to design UHV systems, he covers all important issue in detail, like pumps, outgasing, Gauges, and Electrodes for high voltages.

Thus, this book serves as reference for everybody using UVH in his scientific equipment.

 

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Contents

5D Etching of Carbonaceous Specimens
198
References
199
Vacuum Gauges
205
Mechanical Gauges
207
Thermal Conductivity Gauges
209
Viscosity Gauges Spinning Rotor Gauge
211
Crystal Oscillation Gauge
214
Ionization Gauges Penning Gauge
217

Knowhow Technology in Designing UHV Evacuation Systems
31
References
32
Vacuum Pumps
35
Diffusion Pumps
38
Turbomolecular Pumps
41
Dry Vacuum Pumps
45
Cryopumps
51
Vapor Pressures for Gases
55
Sputter Ion Pumps
56
Noble Pumps for Inert Gases
60
Getter Pumps
68
NonEvaporable Getter NEG Pumps
69
Methods for Measuring Pumping Speeds
70
ThreeGauge Method Pipe Method
71
ThreePoint Pressure Method 3PP Method
72
References
76
Simulation of Pressures in HighVacuum Systems
85
3A Vacuum Circuits
87
Designing of Vacuum Circuits
89
Simulation of Pressures
91
Matrix Calculation of Pressures
94
3B MolecularFlow Conductance
108
Transmission Probability
109
3C GasFlow Patterns
117
References
119
Outgassing
123
Diffusion
124
Recombinationlimited Outgassing
134
Data of Outgassing
136
Electropolishing and Vacuum Firing
137
Aluminum Alloy Copper and Titanium
147
Permeation Through Elastomer Seals
148
Evaporation
156
Methods for Measuring Outgassing Rates
157
Differential Pressurerise Method 441
159
Variable Conductance Method 443
161
Conductance Modulation Method 444
164
TwoPoint Pressure Method and OnePoint Pressure Method 445
167
References
168
Phenomena Induced by Electron Irradiation
175
5A ElectronPhoton Stimulated Desorption ESDPSD
176
5B Polymerization of Hydrocarbon Molecules
182
Transport of Hydrocarbon Molecules in Ultrahigh Vacuum
185
Materials to be Polymerized by Electron Beam Irradiation
192
5C Darkening in Secondary Electron Images in SEM
195
Sputter Ion Pump as a Pressure Indicator
220
BayardAlpert Ionization Gauge
221
Extractor Gauge
228
HotCathode Magnetron Ionization Gauge
231
ColdCathode Ionization Gauge for UHV
232
Magnetic Sector 624
234
Quadrupole MassFilter 624
236
Mass Spectra Cracking Patterns
238
Outgassing from Ionization Gauges with Incandescent Filaments
239
Gas Species Emitted from Ionization Gauges with Incandescent Filaments
244
New Gauges for Measuring Extreme High Vacuum
247
References
257
Microdischarges in High Vacuum
265
Factors
266
Gas Molecules on Insulator Surfaces
275
Triple Junction
278
Surface Flashover in SF6 Gas
280
Review
281
AnodeInitiation Mechanism
282
IonExchange Process and TotalVoltage Effect
286
Projection Whisker on Cathode
291
ArGlow Conditioning
292
HighVoltage Conditioning HVC
293
Conditioning Effect
294
Review
296
Emitters for Fine Electron Probes
301
8A W FE Emitter
304
Remolding
306
Emission Noise
312
Buildup Treatment
317
FEInitiated Vacuum Arc
318
Morphological Changes of Tip
320
FERelated Technology
321
Review
324
8B ZrOW Emitter
325
Surface Geometry
326
Properties
329
8C LaB6 Emitter
332
Mounting Methods
333
Material Loss
338
Properties
340
8D Other FE Emitters
341
Index
345
Copyright

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Page 8 - The sudden increase of backstreaming at inlet pressures above 10~3 Torr points out that a diffusion pump should not be operated in this range unless the condition lasts a very short time. It is common practice in vacuum system operation to open the high vacuum valve after the chamber has been rough pumped to about 10~* Torr (100 (i) exposing the diffusion pump to this pressure.
Page 338 - Pyrolytic graphite in the design of a compact inert heater of a lanthanum hexaboride cathode", Rev.
Page 6 - Forepressure tolerance Forepressure tolerance is usually specified as a specific value of discharge pressure above which the pumping action stops (inlet and discharge pressures become essentially equal). Some diffusion pumps have an abrupt point at which this happens and in such cases it is easy to determine a maximum discharge pressure which should not be exceeded. Other pumps have a gradual deterioration of the pumping action when the discharge pressure is increased and in such cases a 10 per cent...
Page 338 - Some experimental and estimated characteristics of the lanthanum hexaboride rod cathode electron gun,