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Changing the Model for the Direct Assessment of Writing
Edward Af White
Reliability Issues in Holistic Assessment
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agreement analysis of variance assessment of writing assumption Breland cognitive College Composition construct validity content validity context correlation Course C raters criteria direct assessment disagreements discourse community distribution Educational Testing Service error ESL composition essay testing evaluation Examination expert raters generalizability theory Godshalk grades holistic raters holistic scoring procedures holistic scoring sessions Huot important indirect individual instrument reliability interpretations interrater reliability intraclass intraclass correlation judgments language meaning measure of writing methods multiple-choice test novice raters papers performance placement testing primary raters problem psychological psychometric psychometricians Pula questions rater group rater-set rating session readers reading and rating reliability coefficients response rubric scale Scale-point social split split-resolvers statistical strategies student writing Swineford teaching tests of writing theoretical theory topic true score tweeners volume writing ability writing assessment writing proficiency writing quality writing sample writing tasks