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Recent developments in the Normanist controversy
The evaluation of the archaeological evidence
Contacts between Staraja Ladoga and Scandinavia
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10th century 9th and 10th Administrando Imperio ancient Arabic Arbman archaeological archaeologists Baltic birch-bark letters Birka blades burial Byzance Byzantine sources Byzantium calling-in coins connection Constantinople culture Dnepr dynasty early East Europe East European East Slav Eastern ethnic evidence excavations finds Finnish Frisian Gnezdovo Gotland graves grossmährischen Hedeby historian horizon Igor important influence Kiev kings Kiparsky Klindt-Jensen land layers legend linguistic Lonnroth material mentioned Mikulöice monoxyla Moscow names Nestor Nestor Chronicle Nordic Normands Normanist problem Normanist theory Norse North northern Northmen Novgorod Obolensky Old Russian Oleg ornament place-names political Primary Chronicle question Rahbek Schmidt Rhos Rjurik runes runic inscriptions Rusi Russian Primary Chronicle Russian towns Scandinavian Scandinavian objects Scandinavian origin scholars ships short-twig Sineus Slavonic Smolensk Soviet Staraja Ladoga Stenberger Stender-Petersen stone Sweden Swedish swords theory Thomsen tion tribes varjag Viking Age Viking period Vilhelm Thomsen Vladimir Volga weapons West