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ENERGY COSTS OF CHICK REARING IN BLACK
Appendix Comparison of field metabolic rates FMR and other parameters
Results from multiway factorial ANOVA to determine
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adult body condition adult energy expenditure adult kittiwakes adult survival adults from manipulated adults raising chicks Alaska Antarctic Petrels behavioral Black-legged Kittiwakes body composition body mass breeding season brood calculated chick rearing period clutch costs of chick costs of reproduction current reproduction Daan determined differences doubly labeled water Ecol Ecology eggs removed electrical conductivity energetics energy costs evolution experimental birds fat content fecundity costs females FMRs foraging conditions Gabrielsen Golet history theory Hopen Island hypothesis individual Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla kittiwakes from manipulated Leach's Storm-petrels lean mass Least Auklets long-lived species males manipulated and unmanipulated measurements models Moreno morphometrics Oecologia parameters period at Shoup Petrels predicting fat mass Prince William Sound randomly selected nests regression reproductive costs reproductive effort reproductive success Sample sizes saturated model seabirds Shoup Bay colony significant significantly survival and fecundity survival costs SYSTAT total body water tritiated water unmanipulated groups unmanipulated nests variability