Venezuela: Hugo Chávez and the decline of an "exceptional democracy"
Before 1989, U.S. scholars emphasized Venezuela's status as an exceptional Latin American nation. Venezuela was seen as a stable democracy at a time when nearly all of Latin America had fallen under military rule, and the nation used its oil revenues to ameliorate class division. Most importantly, Venezuela served as an ideal model for U.S. policy in Latin America. All this changed in the mass unrest (the Caracazo) during the week of February 27, 1989. A wave of popular protests during the 1990s, two military coup attempts in 1992 and the election of Hugo Chavez challenged scholars to rethink their perception of Venezuelan exceptionalism. In a series of engaging essays, this book explores changing attitudes about Venezuela and it's role in the rest of the world.
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Venezuelan Social Conflict in a Global Context
OIL AND ECONOMIC POLICY
Chavez and the Search for an Alternative to Neoliberalism
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Afro-Venezuelan argued Assembly autonomy Betancourt Bolivarian Circles Bolivarian Revolution Caracas Caracazo Carlos Andres Perez Cfrculos chapter Chavez government Chavismo Chavistas civil society confederation conflict constitution COPEI coup Creole crisis CTV's culture DDQC December democracy promotion democratic Democratica economic electoral politics exceptionalism thesis favored February foreign global groups hard-liners hegemony Hugo Chavez increased indigenous institutions labor leaders labor movement Latin America leadership Machuca ment middle class military mobilization mocracy Movimiento neoliberal oil companies oil industry oil policy oil workers OPEC opposition organized labor participation PDVSA percent Perez Jimenez Petroleum polarization political parties population President Chavez presidential programs Punto Fijo racial racism recall recall election referendum reforms regime region role social organizations Steve Ellner strategy strike tion tional Trabajadores trade union trade unionists traditional U.S. government United Universidad Venezolana Venezuelan exceptionalism Venezuelan oil Venezuelan political Venezuelan society vote voters