The Struggle of Islam in Modern Indonesia
With deep interest I have followed the Indonesian people's fight for freedom and independence from 1945 onwards. This interest has come to be centred in particular on the question of how religions, especially Islam, were involved in this struggle, and what role they would fulfil in the new Indonesia. After having lived and worked in Indonesia from 1946 to the end of 1960, I was twice more enabled to visit Indonesia thanks to grants from the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO). It was during these sojourns in particular, from May to October 1966 and from February to July 1969, that the material for this study was collected, supplemented and checked. For the help I received during these visits I am greatly indebted to so many Indonesian informants that it is impossible to mention them all. Moreover, some of them would not appreciate being singled out by name. But while offering them these general thanks I am thinking of them all individually. In spite of all the help given and patience shown me, this publication is bound to be full of shortcomings. An older Muslim friend, however, once encouraged me by reminding me that perfection belongs only to God (al-kamäl li'lläh). Nevertheless, I should like to offer my apologies for errors and mistakes; I would appreciate it if readers drew my attention to them.
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THE POLITICAL STRUGGLE 19451955
Facing up to the Problem
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1945 Constitution abangan According adherents Agama akan Allah army Atjeh Atjehnese Bangsa Indonesia belief Benda cabinet Christians colonial Communist concerning considered dacwa dalam Darul Islam Dewan didalam Djakarta Charter Djika Dutch Feith freedom groups guided democracy HAMKA Hatta Herbert Feith Hukum Imam Indo Islam in Indonesia Islamic community Islamic law Islamic leaders Islamic parties Islamic University jang Japanese Javanese Jogja Jogjakarta Kahar Kahin Kami Kartosuwirjo kepada kiranja kiyais madhhab Madjlis Sjuro madrasas Masjumi Minister Ministry of Religion modern mosque Muhammadijah Muslims Nahdatul Ulama Naskah nationalists Natsir Negara Islam Indonesia non-Muslims officers pamphlet Pandji Masjarakat Pantjasila Pasal Pemerintah pesantren political preamble President principles problems publications question Qur'an realization Religious Affairs religious instruction Republic of Indonesia Republik Indonesia Saudara schools sebagai secular society Soeharto Soekarno South Sulawesi speech struggle Sura tiap2 ulamas Ummat Islam undang2 Wahid Hasjim wanted West Java Yamin zakat