Viscoelastic Behavior of Rubbery Materials
The enormous size of polymer molecules causes their molecular motions to span a broad range of length scales and give rise to viscoelastic behaviour. This rate-dependence of the properties is a predominant characteristic of soft materials (rubbers, biopolymers, lubricants, adhesives, etc.). Improving the performance and developing new applications for soft materials require an understanding of the basic principles of how molecular motions underlie physical properties. This text is intended to provide grounding in fundamental aspects of the dynamic behavior of rubbery materials, adopting a molecular perspective in its treatment to emphasize how microscopic processes are connected to the observed macroscopic behavior. The latest discoveries and advances in the science and technology of rubbery materials are described and critically analyzed.
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2 Cooperative local dynamics the glasstransition zone
3 Chain dynamics
5 Constitutive modeling nonlinear behavior and the stressoptic law
6 Reduced variables and characteristic relaxation times
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1,4-polybutadiene 1,4-polyisoprene activation energy Arrhenius backbone behavior birefringence blend C.M. Roland carbon Casalini chain changes coefficient components constant constraints correlation crosslinking D.J. Plazek Data from ref deformation density dependence dielectric loss dielectric relaxation dielectric spectroscopy diffusion effect elasticity elastin elastomer entanglements entropy equation experimental exponent Figure filler fluctuations frequency function glass transition glass-transition temperature interactions intermolecular K.L. Ngai kg/mol Kohlrausch length scale Lett linear liquid crystals loss tangent Macromolecules master curve material measured mechanical modes modulus molecular liquids molecular weight molecules motion neat nematic Non-Cryst orientation parameter particles peak phase Phys plotted PMMA Polym polystyrene prediction pressure properties protein PVME ratio repeat units resilin Rheol rheology Rouse model Rubber Chem secondary relaxations segmental dynamics segmental relaxation shear rate smectic solid spectra stress structural relaxation superpositioning Technol thermal versus viscoelastic viscosity volume