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Joel C Kahane and Diane M Bless
Eric Müller and Ingo Titze
Growth Development and Aging of Human Vocal Folds
30 other sections not shown
abdominal acoustic adults amplitude average axon brainstem breath group changes closure collagenous collagenous fibers College-Hill Press components contraction conus elasticus cortex cricothyroid cricothyroid muscle deep layer duration effect elastic fibers EMG activity expiratory females flow formant free edge function fundamental frequency geriatric glottal glottal area glottis gyrus Hirano hyoid bone increase indicated initiated intensity lamina propria laryngeal muscles latency lower lung volume male measured mechanical mechanoreceptors membranous portion modulus monkey motoneurons movement msec mucosa musculature normal nucleus ambiguus observed onset parameters patients pattern PG stimulation phase phonation phonatory pitch posterior prephonatory adjustment produced ratio rib cage shown in Figure shows signals sound speakers speech structure subjects superficial layer supraglottal syllable thyroid cartilage tissue trace utterance values velocity vertical vocal fold vocal fold length vocal fold vibration vocal tract voice vowel wave waveform