Vocational Education in the New EU Member States: Enhancing Labor Market Outcomes and Fiscal Efficiency
World Bank Publications, Jan 1, 2007 - Education - 47 pages
Vocational education often is ignored during discussions of secondary education reform even though it accounts for between 25 percent and 79 percent of upper secondary enrollment in the former centrally-planned countries of the European Union. Based on information, data, and feedback from most of these countries, this paper develops a set of propositions about vocational education reform, not with a view to prescribing a detailed "one-size-fits-all" strategy, but rather it derives some principles that continued reform of vocational education could take into account, to the benefit of fiscal efficiency.
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academic apprenticeship average beneﬁt companies Country questionnaires courses at ISCED Czech Republic difﬁcult dual system economy economy’s enterprises education and training education system enrollment rates equipment Estonia EU8 countries EU8 countries today European European Training Foundation European Union EUROSTAT exam exp on edn expenditure on vocational Figure ﬁnancing Finland ﬁrms ﬁscal efﬁciency ﬂexible funding Germany’s graduates higher education Hungary increasingly institutions ISCED labor market Latvia Lithuania Matura Ministry of Education narrowly specialized skills OECD percent of GDP performed less Poland post-secondary proﬁled lyceums provide ready-to-work recruits pub exp public expenditure qualiﬁcation reading literacy recruits with narrowly reﬂects school leavers secondary vocational schools sector signiﬁcantly Slovakia Slovenia social stipends Table teachers technologies traditional training places type of school unemployment rates UNICEF unit cost Upper 2ndary upper secondary education upper secondary school upper secondary students voca vocational education vocational training workers World Bank
Page 28 - An individual's capacity to understand, use and reflect on written texts, in order to achieve one's goals, to develop one's knowledge and potential and to participate in society.
Page 27 - ... performance differences between students from more and less advantaged family backgrounds. This is true for the various aspects of family background that were measured by PISA, and it remains true even when control variables such as national income are taken into account. As a result, both overall variation in student performance and performance differences between schools tend to be greater in those countries with explicit differentiation between types of programme and schools at an early age.
Page 13 - Two indicators are frequently used to compare subcategory government expenditures internationally: these subcategory expenditures as a percentage of GDP and as a percentage of total public expenditure. It should be noted that total government expenditure as a percentage of GDP in Hong Kong SAR, currently at 20 percent, is very low by international standards.
Page 5 - USSR (the source of the pervasive model): the typical vocational school was built in order to provide trained personnel for a given enterprise. Located near the enterprise, it depended on the enterprise for equipment, instructors for the practical activities, internships and jobs for the graduates. In line with this symbiotic relation, the factories subcontracted with the school for the manufacturing or assembly of parts they needed on their own production lines.
Page 39 - They can recoup 80 percent of their contribution by claiming training grants. Enterprises that provide training in skills that can be shown to be in demand, or have training plans that cover more than...
Page xii - Move increasingly towards post-secondary VET. If education is regarded as a public good, the logical place for specialist and relevant vocational training is after the completion of a high-quality secondary education.
Page xii - The aim within upper secondary education would then be to ensure that it imparts key competences and new skills to as many of its graduates as possible—to the benefit of learning and labor market outcomes and international competitiveness.
Page 23 - If the skills are general or transferable, ie: of use to more than one employer (for instance, welding or general computer skills), employers will be reluctant to finance such training of workers because it will make them more attractive 9.
Page 22 - Location of practical training in plants rather than in schools or practical training centers is desirable in order not only to reduce costs to government but also to ensure that training is related to today's rather than yesterday's technology. Even practical training centers rapidly become "museums of technology.