Vortex, Molecular Spin and Nanovorticity: An Introduction
The subject of this book is the physics of vortices. A detailed analysis of the dynamics of vortices will be presented. The important topics of vorticity and molecular spin will be dealt with, including the electromagnetic analogy and quantization in superfluids. The effect of molecular spin on the dynamics of molecular nano-confined fluids using the extended Navier-Stokes equations will also be covered –especially important to the theory and applicability of nanofluidics and associated devices. The nanoscale boundary layer and nanoscale vortex core are regions of intense vorticity (molecular spin). It will be shown, based on molecular kinetic theory and thermodynamics, that the macroscopic (solid body) rotation must be accompanied by internal rotation of the molecules. Electric polarization of the internal molecular rotations about the local rotation axis –the Barnett effect – occurs. In such a spin aligned system, major changes in the physical properties of the fluid result.
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airfoil angular momentum angular velocity atoms Barnett Barnett effect body forces boundary layer carbon nanotube channel circulation coefficient component computational convection curl curve cylinder defined density diameter dipole dissipation distance Dt ¼ electric energy F ¼ finite fluid dynamics fluid particles fluid velocity flux function G ¼ heat conduction helical Hydrodynamic incompressible inlet vortex integral interaction inviscid irrotational K-function Kelvin kinetic theory macroscopic magnetic field magnetic helicity McCormack molecular dynamics Molecular Spin nanochannel nanofluidics nanoscale nanotube Navier–Stokes equations nonzero normal occurs perpendicular Phys physical plane point vortices polarization potential pressure gradient properties quantized vortex quantized vortices quantum radius region Reynolds number ring shear shown simulation slip length solid-body rotation stagnation point streamlines superconducting superfluid surface temperature tensor term trailing vortex turbulence velocity field viscosity vortex core vortex lines vortex motion vortex strength vortex tube vorticity vector wall wing zero