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WELL DEVELOPED AND FAMILIAR STANDARDS OF EQUAL
ONE PERSON ONE VOTE
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abridging afﬁliation afﬁrm appellants appellees applied apportionment ballot beneﬁt bloc voting broadcast burden campaign candidates challenge choice citizens claim classiﬁcation Congress congressional constitutional constitutionally County decision deﬁned Democratic difﬁcult discrimination discriminatory dissenting District Court district lines effect electoral employees enacted Equal Protection Clause federal Fifteenth Amendment ﬁnd ﬁnding ﬁrst ﬁve Fourteenth Amendment gerrymandering Gingles governmental inﬂuence interest issue judgment judicial JUSTICE Latino legislative legislature limits majority majority-minority majority-minority districts minority group minority voters multimember districts nomination ofﬁce ofﬁcials opinion participate partisan party’s plaintiffs political party political process political subdivisions population preclearance primary election prohibition Proposition 198 purpose qualiﬁcations race racial reapportionment reason redistricting reﬂect registered regulation representation representatives Republican requirement residents restrictions right to vote Senate signiﬁcant speciﬁc speech standard State’s statute strict scrutiny sufﬁcient Supreme Court U.S. Term Limits unconstitutional United violation vote dilution Voting Rights Act