WIG Craft and Ekranoplan: Ground Effect Craft Technology

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Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 3, 2009 - Technology & Engineering - 450 pages
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In the last half-century, high-speed water transportation has developed rapidly. Novel high-performance marine vehicles, such as the air cushion vehicle (ACV), surface effect ship (SES), high-speed monohull craft (MHC), catamaran (CAT), hydrofoil craft (HYC), wave-piercing craft (WPC) and small water area twin hull craft (SWATH) have all developed as concepts, achieving varying degrees of commercial and military success. Prototype ACV and SES have achieved speeds of 100 knots in at calm con- tions; however, the normal cruising speed for commercial operations has remained around 35–50 knots. This is partly due to increased drag in an average coastal s- way where such craft operate services and partly due to limitations of the propulsion systems for such craft. Water jets and water propellers face limitations due to c- itation at high speed, for example. SWATH are designed for reduced motions in a seaway, but the hull form is not a low drag form suitable for high-speed operation. So that seems to lead to a problem – maintain water contact and either water propulsion systems run out of power or craft motions and speed loss are a problem in higher seastates. The only way to higher speed would appear to be to disconnect completely from the water surface. You, the reader, might respond with a question about racing hydroplanes, which manage speeds of above 200 kph. Yes, true, but the power-to-weight ratio is extremely high on such racing machines and not economic if translated into a useful commercial vessel.
 

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Contents

1 Wings in Ground Effect
1
2 WIG Craft Development
33
3 Longitudinal Force Balance and Trim
95
4 Hovering and SlowSpeed Performance
117
5 Aerodynamics in steady Flight
147
6 Longitudinal and Transverse Stability
189
7 Calm Water Drag and Power
225
8 Seakeeping and Manoeuvrability
255
10 Structural Design and Materials
307
11 Power plant and Transmission
337
12 Lift and Propulsion Systems
354
13 Concept Design
373
Postscript
417
Glossary
423
References and Resources
433
Subject Index
441

9 Model Tests and Aerohydrodynamic Simulation
283

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