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agricultural labourers agricultural wages annual earnings appears average wages bricklayers building trades calculation carpenters cent change of wages Chartism complete Compositors Corn Laws Cotton Cotton Spinners course of wages daily wage Devon difficulty districts Eastbourne Edinburgh England estimate figures given gives Glasgow Hand-Loom Weavers harvest hourly rate increase industries Ireland Labour Commission Lanark Lancashire Leone Levi Levi's lists of wages London machinery Manchester Manufacture Mason material method miners money wages number of days numbers employed obtain payment percentage period perquisites piece-rates Poor Law possible Railway mania rate of change rates of wages records Report on Trade result Returns of Wages rise Scotland Sidney Webb Sliding Scales spinners Stat statement Statistical Journal summer Sussex textile throughout the century Trade Unions United Kingdom Wage Census wage statistics wages paid week weekly earnings weekly wages winter workmen
Page 23 - ... During the evolution of machine manufacture the modern subdivision of labour into its numerous classes has proceeded so rapidly, that it is no longer always possible to label a particular man categorically as skilled or unskilled. There is still to a certain extent, however, the distinction between the man who has learned a trade, — called in Trade Union language a "journeyman
Page 52 - For authorities for London, Edinburgh, and Glasgow, vide Section XII. infra. From these tables it appears that the wages of Irish town labourers have been, like those of agricultural labourers, considerably lower than the wages of men doing similar work in England or Scotland ; but that artisans on the other hand have been as well paid in Ireland as in any English or Scotch towns other than London. This fact was brought out by Sir R. Giffen in his evidence before the Commission on Financial Relations....
Page 48 - Wages are higher, and what is probably of more importance, employment is more constant, owing to the great emigration which has taken place among the class of able-bodied men. Their food is cheaper than it was 15 years ago, and their house accommodation (in Leinster and Munster at all events) has undergone considerable improvement; and carrying with them, as they do, those plots of ground, they are enabled to keep pigs and fowls, to provide them with food during the months they can get no employment.
Page 115 - It is not possible in a limited space to do more than state the nature of the problem, and give some illustrations of special difficulties.
Page 126 - ... up to the general average. In many cases it is likely that the money wages paid in some year of the inflation of the seventies was greater than any wage since ; but owing to the very rapid fluctuation of wages and prices at that time it is not easy to make any useful comparison. It is better to say that money wages in the nineties were 10 per cent. above those of the eighties, and 30 per cent. above those of the sixties.
Page 3 - kinetic," which it is proposed to follow almost exclusively here, consists in studying not wages themselves, but their rates of change, making no attempt to construct a wage census for former dates or at the present time, but to study the proportionate changes of wages period by period, wherever we can obtain a sequence of figures, and combine the figures which indicate these rates of change independently of the actual rate of wages at any time or place.
Page 8 - ... of the account the effect of work by married women should be placed ; it is even doubtful whether the opportunities of earnings presented to boys in a large town are an advantage. This brings us to the very difficult question of women's women's wages — difficult because the conditions have wages. changed immensely during the century; on the one hand the opportunities of fairly well-paid work having developed, on the other the available supply of labour having increased ;' difficult also because...
Page 18 - ... for equal effort of men of the same capacity are equal to one another ; or more generally, the wages throughout the country for equal degrees of skill, are equal at any given time. If this is so, we shall find it useful to watch the change of the rate of wages paid for a certain degree of skill, even though the number of persons paid at this wage may be a very small proportion of the total number doing similar work.
Page 125 - ... disturbance had passed. Wages, as is usual in periods of inflation, were so variable that no single statement can be relied upon to represent the average for the year. It is the study of normal years that yields the best general result. Materials are very plentiful for the period 1830-40, chiefly because the prolonged depression of that decade ° r 1830—1840.