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The Many Meanings of Escalation
Understanding Escalation Control
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action actor model allies Alsace-Lorraine American analytic Anglo-French army assessment asymmetry attack Austria-Hungary Austrian Austrian Empire bargaining belligerents Bismarck Black Sea Britain British and French cabinet cognitive commitment conflict Constantinople controlling escalation Crimean crisis czar decision decision-makers defensive deterrence diplomatic effect English English Americans escalation control escalation sequence escalatory European fields of expectation fighting fleet forces foreign policy France Franco-Prussian French and British German image of escalation important initial war context instance interests involved Italian Italy Koniggratz limits London and Paris major Menshikov military Moldavia motivation Napoleon Nationalist nations naval negotiations North North German Confederation nuclear Nyon objectives Ohio opponent Ottoman Empire perceptions Petersburg policy-makers political possible potential powers preconditions Prime Minister Newcastle principalities reason risk Royal Navy Russian saliency side side's significant Sinope situation Soviet Spain Spanish Civil squadron steps strategy submarine territory threat tion troops Turkish Turks victory Vienna Wallachia Western