War and Ideology
Why do men resort to war to solve their socio-economic problems? That is the question that Eric Carlton asks, and attempts to answer, in this stimulating, readable study. Relating war to ideology, this book is based on the proposition that men act as they think, and think as they believe, and that belief - religious or otherwise - conditions attitudes toward the nature and conduct of war. Carlton argues that various constellations of values, often intellectualized as ideologies, not only constitute the rationalizations and justifications for war, but may also provide the actual imperatives for warfare itself. Carlton conducts his lively discussion in a historical and comparative setting, with case studies of war in eleven societies (ancient Egypt, Sparta, Athens, Carthage, Rome, early Israel, Crusader Knights, Mongols, Aztecs, Zulus, Maoists), in each of which the enemy is differently perceived. A final section, "War and the Problem of Values," draws together the threads of the arguments and reaffirms the relationship between war and ideological belief and commitment.
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THE EGYPTIANS OF THE NEW KINGDOM The enemy as nonpeople
THE SPARTANS The enemy as political obstacles
THE CARTHAGINIANS The enemy as economic rivals
THE ROMANS The enemy as uncouth barbarians
THE EARLY ISRAELITES The enemy as ritual outlaws
THE CRUSADER KNIGHTS The enemy as unbelievers
THE MONGOLS The enemy as effete degenerates
THE AZTECS The enemy as ritual fodder
actually aggression Akhenaten allies argued army Athenians Athens Aztec society Aztecs battle became behaviour belief Boers campaigns Carthage Carthaginians cavalry century BC certainly Chinese Chingis citizens commander common Communist conflict conquest Crusades cultural death developed dominant early economic effect Egypt Egyptian empire enemy especially eventually expansionist expediency extermination forces genocide Gerousia gods Greece Greek helot hoplites Huitzilopochtli human Hyksos ideas ideology interests involved Israel Israelite killed kind king Kingdom knights Kuomintang land largely Marxist massacre Messenia military Mongols moral Muslim nature neighbouring normally organization particular peasants Peloponnesian War perhaps period Persian political population possible practice probably problem question regarded relations religion religious ritual Roman Rome sacrifice seen sense Shaka Sicily simply situation slaves social society sometimes Spartans success temple territories took traditional tribal tribes troops usually values warfare warriors wars Yahweh Zulu
Page 20 - Perhaps a more satisfactory definition of ideology is 'a pattern of beliefs and concepts (both factual and normative) which purport to explain complex social phenomena with a view to directing and simplifying socio-political choices facing individuals and...
Page 14 - But if any good result ensue, they, the People, at once take the credit of that to themselves. In the same spirit it is not allowed to caricature on the comic stage or otherwise libel the People, because they do not care to hear themselves ill spoken of. But if any one has a desire to satirize his neighbor he has full leave to do so.
Page 2 - Human nature being what it is, there will always be war and conflict* 5.
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