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abstractors analysis anemometer anthracite anthracite coal ascertained ash-pit ashes and residue avoirdupois bituminous boiler setting Boiler Warm Blast boiler-house brick bridge wall British thermal units calorimeter carbon monoxide cent chimney column combustion condensed crucibles dampers Degrees F diagrams difference engine equal evaporation external air Fahrenheit February 13 feet fire fire-brick flue gases full heating power furnace gauge grates heat-carrier horse-power hour hydrogen inches in diameter iron July July 11 loss of heat lower Marland Mean minutes nights number of British number of pounds observed loss oxygen Pacific Boiler Warm perature pipe platinum balls pound of coal pounds of water pyrom pyrometer quantity of heat quarter-hourly radiation ratio result samples side walls smoke-box specific heat square inch STEAM-GAUGE PRESSURE stop-cock superheating surface surface condenser Table XXXII temperatures in brick-work thermometer ting steam tube ture units expressing Warm-Blast Boiler week
Page 44 - Pounds of water evaporated from and at 212° F., per pound of coal, days and nights: Pacific Boiler Warm Blast No. 1 Warm Blast No. 2 Water evaporated from and at 212' F. by day, per pound of coal burned during
Page 148 - 2.38) 138 per cent, surplus air. Experiments to ascertain the composition, volume, and temperature of the gases from 17 boilers, burning good anthracite coal at a known rate, with great care, and under most favorable conditions of draft, grate area, rate of combustion, area of heating surface, and general management, gave, by analysis, carbon dioxide (no monoxide), nitrogen, and free atmospheric air—the latter being
Page 5 - could not fail to do. Careful and repeated experiments and observations proved that these dampers could never be opened without checking the draft through the fuel, and lowering the temperature of the fire; and it is not impossible that a very
Page 142 - MEMORANDUM of agreement by and between Obadiah Marland of Boston, in the County of Suffolk and Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and
Page 152 - acts equally in all directions. Although all in motion upward through the fire, its upward portion, being most expanded, is moving more rapidly than its less expanded lower portion ; and its expansive force, acting downwardly, simply retards the upward flow of entering air. Lateral expansion aids in bringing fresh oxygen into contact with
Page 151 - will be, approximately, the temperature of the furnace, a little modified, probably a little increased, by the subsequent union of further portions of oxygen with new portions of carbon encountered during the farther progress of the mixed gases through the fuel, until they emerge,
Page 152 - 3.5 times that of air of temperature 385°. Now it is the volume of the gases at their final emergence from the interstices of the fuel that determines their flow — determines the force of draft or blower required to produce that flow. The
Page 151 - and to contact with glowing fuel, in order to introduce as much oxygen as would be contained in eight cubic feet of the cold air (60°). Equally, of course, the entering velocity must be greater in the some proportion, since the aggregate area of all the orifices through the grates and fuel may be regarded as constant. This has been urged, sometimes
Page 151 - is in the same inverse ratio. Thirteen cubic feet of the heated air (385°) must be admitted to the fire and to contact with glowing fuel, in order to introduce as much oxygen as would be contained in
Page 152 - simply retards the upward flow of entering air. Lateral expansion aids in bringing fresh oxygen into contact with unconsumed carbon. Upward expansion aids, and downward expansion retards, the draft. Now it is plain that this effect must be the greater, the greater the degree of expansion which takes place within the interstices of the fuel. With air supply at 60°, it is 5.7-fold.