Water-analysis: A Practical Treatise on the Examination of Potable Water

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Trüber & Company, 1868 - Water - 103 pages
 

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Page 34 - Frankland and Armstrong adopt a different process, and destroy the nitrates and nitrites by sulphuric acid, in the following manner : — ' Estimation of Nitrogen in the form of Nitrates and Nitrites. — The following is the mode in which this process is applied to the estimation of nitrogen existing as nitrates and nitrites in potable waters : — The solid residue from the half litre of water used for determination, ~No. 1 (estimation of total solid constituents) is treated with a small quantity...
Page 12 - The number of measures of soap solution is noticed, and the strength of the solution is altered, if necessary, by a further addition of either soap or spirit, until exactly 32 measures of the liquid are required for 100 measures of the water of 16 degrees of hardness. The experiment is made a second and a third time, in order to leave no doubt as to the strength of the soap solution, and then a large quantity of the test may be prepared ; for which purpose Dr. Clark recommends to scrape off the soap...
Page 51 - The distillation is continued until 50 cc of distillate contain less than y^g- milligramme of ammonia. Both sets of distillate have the ammonia in them determined by means of the Nessler test, as described above. No matter how good the water may be, it is desirable never to distil over less than 100 cc with carbonate of soda, and not less than 200 cc after the addition of the potash and permanganate of potash.
Page 29 - ... introduced into it (foil will answer very well with dilute solutions, but we much prefer thin sheet aluminium in all cases). The neck of the retort is now inclined a little upwards, and its mouth closed with a cork, through which passes the narrow end of a small tube tilled with broken-up tobacco-pipe, wet either with water, or, better, with very dilute hydrochloric acid free from ammonia.
Page 35 - ... volume than that of the concentrated solution and rinsings previously introduced into the tube. By a little dexterity it is easy to introduce successively the concentrated liquid, rinsings, and sulphuric acid into the tube by means of *the cup and stopcock, without the admission of any trace of air. Should, however, air inadvertently gain admittance, it is easily removed by depressing the tube in the mercury trough, and then momentarily opening the stopcock. If this be done within a minute or...
Page 35 - ... mercury spurts out in minute streams, as nitric oxide gas is evolved. The escape of the metal should be gently resisted, so as to maintain a considerable excess of pressure inside the tube, and thus prevent the possibility of air gaining access to the interior during the shaking. In from three to five minutes the reaction is...
Page 12 - ... with it, sucking out the air from the bottle at intervals by means of a glass tube, so as to change the atmosphere in the bottle ; 100 measures of the water are then introduced into the stoppered phial, and treated with the soap test, the carbonic acid eliminated being sucked...
Page 12 - Good London curd soap is dissolved in proof spirit, in the proportion of one ounce of avoirdupois for every gallon of spirit, and the solution is filtered into a well-stoppered phial, capable of holding 2000 grains of distilled water; 100 test measures, each measure equal to 10 water-grain measures of the standard solution of 16° degrees of hardness, are introduced.
Page 12 - ... of the standard solution of 16 degrees of hardness, are introduced. Into the water in this phial the soap solution is gradually poured from a graduated burette; the mixture being well shaken after each addition of the solution of s.oap, until a lather is formed of sufficient consistence to remain for five minutes all over the surface of the water, when the phial is placed on its side. The number of measures of soap solution is noticed, and the strength of the solution is altered, if necessary,...
Page 46 - ... solution of bichloride of mercury (corrosive sublimate), which will cause a red precipitate that disappears on shaking up the mixture. Add the solution of bichloride of mercury carefully, shaking up, as that liquid is added, so as to dissolve the precipitate as fast as it is formed. After continuing the addition of the bichloride of mercury for some time, a point will ultimately be reached at which the precipitate will cease to dissolve. When the precipitate begins to be insoluble in the liquid,...

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