Water-supply Engineering: The Designing and Constructing of Water-supply Systems

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John Wiley & sons, Incorporated, 1917 - Water-supply engineering - 484 pages
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Contents

Maximum Rates of Consumption
16
Waste of Water
17
Forecasting Future Consumption
20
CHAPTER III
23
RIG PAGE 1 Normal Chlorine Curves of New England and New York
26
Qualities Caused by Impurities
29
Effects of Impurities
31
Disease and Drinking Water
34
Investigating Quality of a Water
36
Making and Interpreting Analyses
40
Qualities Desirable in a Water Supply
48
CHAPTER IV
53
Sedimentation
58
Velocities at which Particles of Sediment Sink
59
Entrance to Sedimentation Basin
64
Baffles in Sedimentation Basin
65
Coagulation
66
Filtration
70
General View of Rapid Sand Filter Plant
73
Strainers in Floor of Rapid Filters Baltimore Md
74
Rapid Filters at New Milford N J
75
Results Obtained by St Louis Purification Plant
76
General View of Slow Sand Filter Plant
80
Sandwashing Hopper
85
Other Purification Methods
87
Results Secured by Slow Sand Filters at Lawrence
88
Disinfection oo 21 Applying Chemicals
96
Limeslaking Machinery St Louis Filters
98
ART PAGK 22 Rain
101
Ground Water Diversion by Inclined Strata
102
Rivers and Lakes
103
Underground Supplies
104
Relative Use of Different Sources
105
CHAPTER VI
106
Quantity of Rainfall
107
Some Extremes of Annual Precipitation
109
Fluctuation of Monthly Rainfall at Madison Wis
111
Cumulative Rainfall Diagram for Manchester Vt
112
Progressive Mean Annual Precipitation at Several Locations
113
Records of Some Severe Storms
114
Extreme Annual Rainfalls and Mean Annual Rates
115
Annual Rainfall Rates and Successive Averages
116
Rainfall Curves
117
Conditions Affecting Rainfall
118
Mean Annual Precipitation by Districts and Altitudes
120
Rainfall at Different Altitudes in Arizona
121
Relation between Thunderstorms and Annual Precipitation
122
Mean Annual Precipitation in the United States
123
Cycles of Low Rainfall
124
Typical Dry Periods
126
Gauging Rainfall
127
Rain Gage
128
CHAPTER VII
130
Evaporation from Water Surfaces
131
Ratios of Monthly to Mean Annual Evaporation
132
Natural Storage
135
Absorption and Yielding Capacity of Various Soils
138
Yield and Runoff
139
Runoff from a Number of Watersheds
142
Per Cent of Rainfall Collected Sudbury and Croton Watersheds
143
Yield of Connecticut and Potomac Watersheds
144
Runoff from Several Drainage Basins
145
Ratio of Monthly to Mean Runoff
146
Runoff from Storms
149
Storage
151
Yield and Storage Diagram Sudbury Watershed
155
Quality of Surface Waters
158
Temperature of Ponds and Reservoirs
162
Organic Matter at Surface and Bottom of Bodies of Water
163
Temperature of a Lake that Freezes
165
CHAPTER VIII
167
Quality of River Water
169
Analyses of Passaic and Hudson River Water
170
Varying Amounts of Impurities in Hudson River
171
Lakes
172
CHAPTER DC
174
Crosssection of Valley of Fountain qui Bouille
175
Typical Section in Central New Jersey
176
Spring from a Fault
177
Spring at Outcrop
178
Artesian Wells in Illinois and Wisconsin
179
Underground Flow in Stratified Rock
180
Flow of Ground Water
182
Curves Showing Cone of Depression
184
Curves Showing Depression in Water Plane
185
Utilizing Ground Water
186
Amount of Ground Water Available
191
Illustration of Ground Storage
193
CHAPTER X
195
Head Works
196
Impounding and Storage Reservoirs
198
Distributing Reservoirs
203
Distributing Reservoir
204
Gravity Supplies from Large Streams
206
Open Conduits
207
FIG PAGE 39 Open Canal Lined with Concrete Los Angeles
209
Open Canal Lined with Concrete Santa Ana
210
Bench Flume
211
Conduit on Trestle
212
Covered Concrete Conduit in Excavation
214
Closed Conduits
215
Steel Pressure Conduit
216
Reinforced Concrete Pipe for Pressure Conduit 217
217
Some Closed Conduits
218
Location of Conduits
219
Location of Mains and Valves
222
Bucket Pump
243
Centrifugal Pump
246
Motive Power for Pumps
250
Threestage Centrifugal Pump Direct Connected to Turbine
251
Threestage Centrifugal Pump Direct Connected to Gas Engine
253
Triplex Power Pump Belt Connected
254
Kinds of Power Used for Pumpingby Districts
256
Water Tube Boilers
258
Measurements for Setting Return Tubular Boilers
262
Chimney Heights and Diameters
263
Pumping Engines
264
Mariotte Curve of a Tripleexpansion Engine
268
Vertical Tripleexpansion Pumping Engine
272
Duty of Pumping Plants
274
NO FACE 39 Heat Content of Saturated Steam
279
Loss of Heat in a Steam Pumping Plant
280
The Air Lift
283
Air Lift Pumping Plant
284
Different Methods of Piping Wells for Air Lift
286
Layout for Booster System of Air Lift
289
Selection of Pump Station Details
292
CHAPTER DAMS AND EMBANKMENTS 64 Materials for Construction
303
Foundations 34
304
Masonry Dam on Timber Foundation
306
Designing Masonry Dams
308
Calculation of Triangular Dam Section
312
Weir Dam at Holyoke Mass
315
Practical Sections of Gravity Dams
316
Practical Economic Profile of High Masonry Dam
318
Bear Valley Dam
319
Data of Masonry Dams
323
Rockfill Dams
325
Timber Dams
327
Great Falls Overflow Dam
328
Sewall Falls Dam
329
Earth Embankments 33
330
331
331
Oak Ridge Reservoir Dam
333
Concrete Core Wall of Fairmont Dam
334
Dam of Reservoir M New York Water Supply
335
Puddlelined Reservoirs
336
Data of Earth Dams
338
Hydraulic Fill Dam Construction
339
La Mesa Dam Hydraulic Construction
340
Reservoir Lining
341
Reservoir in Rock Excavation
342
Covered Reservoirs
344
Covered Reservoir at Quincy Ill
345
Crosssection of Slow Sand Filter Washington D C
346
Interior of Covered Reservoir Baltimore Filter Plant
347
ART PAGK 73 Collecting the Data
348
Selecting the Source of Supply
350
The General Design
355
Gravity Head Works
358
FIG PAGE 86 Unsuitable Dam Sites
360
Reservoir Crosssection
361
Estimating Contents of Earth Dam
362
Spillway in Earth Embankment
364
Flange for Pipe in Embankment
365
Gate House East Branch Reservoir
366
ra 11 Gates and Flushingout Sluices
368
Pumping Station and Inlet Details
369
Space Occupied by Pumps of Different Types
370
Erie Intake Crib
372
Ground Water Plants
373
Deep Well with Pump
377
Infiltration Crib Denver Water Works
378
Purification Plants
379
Conduits and Distribution Systems
384
Box Flume Construction
385
Sections of Nashua Concrete Aqueduct
388
Joints of Castiron Pipe
390
Standard Dimensions of Cast Iron Pipe
391
Standard Thickness and Weights of Cast Iron Pipe
394
Water Mains Fire Hydrants and Meters in Use
396
Castiron Pipe Specials
397
Wroughtiron Pipes
398
Air Escape Valve
402
Bridge Crossings
405
Hydraulic Gradient for Pumping Main
409
Distribution System
410
Standpipes and Tanks
412
Elevated Water Tank
414
Standpipe Bottom
420
Erecting Concrete Standpipe
424
Reinforced Concrete Standpipes
426
Estimating Cost
427
Cost of Cast Iron Pipe 1900 to 1916
432
CHAPTER XV
437
Conduits and Distribution Systems
442
n0 Contractors Pipe and Special Map
444
False Head for Testing Pipe Line
446
Other Features
447
CHAPTER XVI
450
Portable Plank Road 45 2
452
Concreting and Lining Slopes
453
Use of Derricks and Cableways in Building Ashokan Dam
455
Distribution System
457
Excavation Platform
458
Pipe Derrick
460
Yarning and Calking Tools
461
Constructing Siphons Across River by Coffer Dam Method
463
Wells
464
Sheathing Dug Wells
465
Apparatus for Jetting Down Wells
468
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Page 50 - The following are the maximum limits of permissible bacteriological impurity: "(1) The total number of bacteria developing on standard agar plates, incubated 24 hours at 37 C., shall not exceed 100 per cubic centimeter. Provided, that the estimate shall be made from not less than two plates, showing such numbers and distribution of colonies as to indicate that the estimate is reliable and accurate.
Page 282 - Water actually evaporated per pound of dry coal, from actual pressure and temperature Ibs. 32. Equivalent water evaporated per pound of dry coal, from and at 212 F Ibs.
Page 71 - This size is such that 10 per cent of the material is of smaller grains, and 90 per cent is of larger grains than the size given. The results obtained at Lawrence indicate that the finer 10 per cent have as much influence upon the action of a material in filtration as the coarser 90 per cent.
Page 51 - ... incubation upon lactose litmus agar or Endo's medium. (c) When plate colonies resembling B. coli develop upon either of these plate media within...
Page 51 - ... 3. It is recommended, as a routine procedure, that, in addition to five 10 cc portions, one 1 cc portion, and one 0.1 cc portion of each sample examined be planted in a lactose peptone broth fermentation tube in order to demonstrate more fully the extent of pollution in grossly polluted samples. 4. It is recommended that in the above-designated tests the culture media and methods used shall be in accordance with the specifications of the'Committee on Standard Methods of Water Analysis of the...
Page 51 - Five 10 cc. portions of each sample tested shall be planted, each in a fermentation tube containing not less than 30 cc. of lactose peptone broth. These shall be incubated 48 hours at 37 C.
Page 14 - Districts.—The required fire flow depends upon the character and congestion of the buildings. Sections where buildings are small and of low height and with about...
Page 147 - With reference to yield throughout the United States the general statement is made in the US Weather Bureau Reports that " for the area of the United States east of the 95th meridian (Omaha and Galveston) the run-off is from 35 to 50 per cent of the total rainfall. It appears to be largest in the vicinity of the Great Lakes, and diminish from this region slowly to south and east, and rapidly towards the west.
Page 103 - ... more slowly will its supply be yielded and become exhausted. In some instances the ground-flow does not reach the same stream as does the surface-flow, but is carried by the dip of the strata into another valley, as in Fig. i. FIG. i. — GROUND-WATER DIVERSION BY INCLINED STRATA. The ground-flow frequently emerges as springs; but the larger part of it ordinarily reaches the stream as a general exuding from the banks and in some cases the bottom of the channel. A study of the material and dip...
Page 51 - ... regulations which may be based upon these recommendations, the following may be considered sufficient evidence of the presence of organisms of the Bacillus coli group : Formation of gas in fermentation tube containing original sample of water (a). Development of acid-forming colonies on...

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