Water tube steam boilers: for all pressures, duties and fuels

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Shallcross Printing Company, 1902 - Steam-boilers - 168 pages
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Page 92 - The analysis of the flue gases is an especially valuable method of determining the relative Value of different methods of firing or of different kinds of furnaces. In making these analyses great care should be taken to procure average samples, since the composition is apt to vary at different points of the flue.
Page 78 - Showing Lbs. Feed-Water per Horse-power required by Pumping Engines per Hour. EDM NOTE. The horse-power is the HP of the water column. The evaporation is assumed at 10 Ibs. water from and at 212 F. per Ib. of coal. Economy in boilers is always stated in "pounds of water evaporated from and at 212 F. per pound of fuel," designated as "-Units of Evaporation." (See Vol. VI, Transactions Am. Soc. ME— 1881). Unless a contract specifically provides otherwise the " assumed evaporation
Page 91 - Quality of Steam. — The percentage of moisture in the steam should be determined by the use of either a throttling or a separating steam calorimeter. The sampling nozzle should be placed in the vertical steam pipe rising from the boiler. It should be made of -inch pipe, and should extend across the diameter of the steam pipe...
Page 75 - The valves shall be so arranged that each boiler shall have at least one separate safety valve, unless the arrangement is such as to preclude the possibility of shutting off the communication of any boiler with the safety valve or valves employed. This arrangement shall also apply to lockup safety valves when they are employed.
Page 129 - Each is composed of a head plate and a tube sheet, flanged all around and joined at bottom and sides by a butt strap of same material, strongly riveted to both. The water legs are further stayed by hollow stay bolts of hydraulic tubing, of large diameter, so placed that two stays support each tube and hand hole and are subjected to only very slight strain. Being made of heavy metal, they form the strongest parts of the boiler and its natural supports. The water legs are joined to the shell by flanged...
Page 41 - York, receives 90 pounds of mineral matter, and from many spring waters a ton, which must be either blown out or deposited. These impurities are usually either calcium carbonate or calcium sulphate, or a mixture ; the first is most common on land, the second at sea. Organic matters often harden these mineral scales and make them more difficult of removal. '• The only positive and certain remedy for incrustation and sediment, once deposited, is periodical removal by mechanical means at sufficiently...
Page 91 - ... just beyond the outlet from the separator. The drip from the separator should be caught and weighed and the percentage of moisture computed therefrom added to that shown by the calorimeter. Superheating should be determined by means of a thermometer placed in a mercury well inserted in the steam pipe. The degree of superheating should be taken as...
Page 75 - Any spring-loaded safety valves constructed so as to give an increased lift by the operation of steam, after being raised from their seats, or any spring-loaded safety valve constructed in any other manner, or so as to give an effective area equal to that of the afore-mentioned spring-loaded safety valve, may be used in lieu of the common lever-weighted...
Page 59 - ... extent of a perfect vacuum. ln flowing through a nozzle of the best form, the steam expands to the external pressure, and to the volume due to this pressure, so long as it is not less than 58 per cent of the internal pressure. For an external pressure of 58 per cent, and for lower percentages, the ratio of expansion is 1 to 1.G24.
Page 91 - Calorific Tests and Analysis of Coal. — The quality of the fuel should be determined either by heat test or by analysis, or by both. The rational method of determining the total heat of combustion is to burn the sample of the coal in an atmosphere of oxygen gas, the coal to be sampled as directed in Article XV.

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