Waterborne Pathogens: Review for the Drinking Water Industry
Infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria, viruses and protozoa, are the most common and widespread health risk associated with drinking water. Most waterborne pathogens are introduced into drinking water supplies by human or animal faeces (enteric pathogens) but they can also exist naturally in water environments as indigenous aquatic micro-organisms. Controlling the risks related to these pathogens is a permanent challenge for the water industry. In addition to the constantly evolving range of pathogens to consider, assessing and managing such risks requires the integration of information issued by a wide range of disciplines. The necessary knowledge is however still sketchy and incomplete for most pathogens, and research efforts are necessary to fill the remaining gaps of knowledge.
The purpose of this study is to provide an updated, comprehensive review of current knowledge on a selection of pathogens of interest for the drinking water industry, and to identify the remaining gaps of knowledge and thus the necessary research to be conducted. Emphasis has been laid on the information needed to assess and manage the risks related to each of these pathogens in drinking water production and distribution.
The pathogens considered in this review were selected on the basis of:
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2010 Global Water Acanthamoeba Adenovirus adenoviruses Aeromonas hydrophila amoebae anth./sand Appl associated bacteria BDF BDF BDF bioﬁlms Campylobacter jejuni cell Classiﬁcation Clin concentration contamination Cryptosporidium parvum Cyclospora developed disease disinfection drinking water Drinking-water Industry drinkingwater Emmanuelle Guillot Encephalitozoon Encephalitozoon intestinalis enteroviruses Environ Environmental detection Epidemiology Escherichia coli Feline calicivirus filtration coagulation ﬁrst gastroenteritis genus Gerba Global Water Research Guillot and Jean-Franc¸ois Helicobacter pylori hepatitis Avirus Hijnen identiﬁcation inactivation Inactivation/removal isolated IWA Publishing Jacangelo Jean-Franc¸ois Loret Legionella pneumophila Microbiol microcystin microsporidia molecular methods mycobacteria Norovirus Occurrence oocysts ozone parvum oocysts PCR assay Poliovirus polymerase chain reaction Prepared by Emmanuelle pseudomallei Published by IWA quantiﬁcation real-time PCR Reservoirs Resistance to chlorine rotavirus RT-PCR Salmonella sedimentation serotypes sewage species speciﬁc strains studies surface water survival temperature Thurston-Enriquez typhi viable virus viruses wastewater Water Res Water Research Coalition water supplies water treatment Waterborne outbreaks Waterborne Pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica