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A discussion for management
The permanent value of refuges in waterfowl management
The comeback of the wood duck
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acres adult average Aythya band recoveries behavior Bellrose birds black duck blue-winged teal botulism breeding pairs breeding population broods Bull Canada geese canvasback cent clutch Conf dabbling ducks Delta densities diving ducks drakes duck nests ducklings ecology eggs eider estimates factors feeding females flight flightless flocks Flyway fowl Gadwall Game goose Green-winged Teal habitat harvest rates hatching hens hunters hunting season increased incubation islands kill Lake land leeches lesser scaup losses males Manage Manitoba marsh mate method Mgmt migratory Minnesota Mississippi Flyway molt mortality National Wildlife Refuge nesting success North Dakota observed occurred parasitism percent period pike pintail ponds potholes prairie predation production recovery rate red fox redhead regulations renesting ring-necked ducks River ruddy duck sample Saskatchewan scoters sex ratios shot species spring study area survey survival rates Table territory tion U.S. Fish weight wetlands wigeon Wildl Wildlife Service winter wood ducks young