Wave Making by an Underwater Explosion
Naval Surface Weapons Center, White Oak Laboratory, 1976 - U.S. Naval Mine Warfare Test Station (Md.) - 159 pages
This paper is a historical account of wave making experiments made during and immediately after World War II, from the smallest to the largest scale including the Atom Baker Bikini. The various theories of explosive wave making are discussed and comparisons are made between the observations and the theoretical expectations. Scaling laws are examined for the two distinct cases: explosion bubble containment (deep case) and explosion bubble blowout (shallow case). The influence of the sea bottom is considered. A general conclusion is reached that it is possible to reconcile theory and experiment within a factor of two with regard to wave amplitude and within a few percent with regard to wave period. The number of experiments which are directly applicable to the conditions imposed by theory is limited. Theory in some cases assumes the presence of a rigid bottom, and in other cases no bottom at all; whereas in most experiments a non rigid bottom is present. A synthesis of all these results is made leading to a semiempirical prescription by which explosively generated waves may be predicted. The conclusions are not inconsistent with later work in this field done in the last decade.
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Figure Title Page l Prints of Aerial Photos on Shot l
Print of Aerial Photo Shot 2 34 Seconds after Explosion with Reproduction of Hydrophone Record at Pole 12 21
25 other sections not shown
70mm Film Applied Mathematics Panel Approximate Pole Distances Attn Baker blowout bottom amplitudes bottom pressure bubble period calculated camera cavity charge depth charge radii charge weight Charlesworth cosh crater critical depth curves cylindrical deep Distance film Distance Pole Number Distances with Explosion duration estimate factor feet of water Figure Film formula free surface free water ft/sec gas globe gravity waves Hence hydrophone data hydrophone records inches initial Kirkwood and Seeger Mathematics Tables Project measured nonblowout NSWC/WOL/MP Number Distance Pole º º º º º observed obtained optimum depth Penney plotted POLE 12 Pole Number Distance Seeger theory Shot Number Solomons spherical SUCTION surface amplitude surface and bottom Surface Waves Table tanh theory overestimates TNT on Bottom trough trough to crest U.S. Atlantic Fleet Underwater Explosion volume water depth wave amplitude wave height wave system wavelength waves produced Woods Hole