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agricultural Allied American Arab areas aristocratic army Asia Minor Athenian Athens Austria Balkans barbarian became began Black Sea Britain British Byzantine Byzantine Empire centers Christian Church citizens city-states civilization colonies communities complex Constantinople constituted created culture developed early East eastern ecclesiastical economic Egypt eighth century eleventh century elite emerged emperor empire England Europe European force France French frontier Gaul German Greece Greek Hellenistic civilization Hellenistic world Hellenized historians human imperial industrial influence institutions intellectual invasions Islamic Italy Jewish Jews kingdom kings labor land later Latin leaders lived Magyars Mediterranean military modern monarchy nations North Africa organized peasant Persian polis political population production reforms religion religious revolution Roman Roman Empire Rome rule rulers Russia Sasanid sixth century B.C. social society Spain Sparta spiritual survived tenth century territories thought tion took trade traditions troops United urban vast warlords wealth West western