Wetland Indicators: A Guide to Wetland Identification, Delineation, Classification, and Mapping

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CRC Press, Apr 21, 1999 - Technology & Engineering - 418 pages
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Understand the current concept of wetland and methods for identifying, describing, classifying, and delineating wetlands in the United States with Wetland Indicators - capturing the current state of science's role in wetland recognition and mapping.
Environmental scientists and others involved with wetland regulations can strengthen their knowledge about wetlands, and the use of various indicators, to support their decisions on difficult wetland determinations. Professor Tiner primarily focuses on plants, soils, and other signs of wetland hydrology in the soil, or on the surface of wetlands in his discussion of Wetland Indicators.
Practicing - and aspiring - wetland delineators alike will appreciate Wetland Indicators' critical insight into the development and significance of hydrophytic vegetation, hydric soils, and other factors.

Features
  • Shows 55 color plates, documenting wetland indicators throughout the nation - with more than 34 soil plates and aerial photos
  • Illustrates other wetland properties with more than 50 figures
  • Provides over 60 tables, including extensive tables of U.S. wetland plant communities and examples for determining hydrophytic vegetation


    Contents
    Wetland Definitions
    Wetland Concepts for Identification and Delineation
    Plant Indicators of Wetlands and Their Characteristics
    Vegetation Sampling and Analysis for Wetlands
    Soil Indicators of Wetlands
    Wetland Identification and Boundary Delineation Methods
    Problem Wetlands and Field Situations for Delineation
    Wetland Classification
    Wetlands of the United States: An Introduction, With Emphasis on Their
    Plant Communities
    Wetland Mapping and Photointerpretation
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    Contents

    WETLAND DEFINITIONS INTRODUCTION
    1
    SHALERS WETLAND DEFINITION 1890
    3
    1950s AND 1960s FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE WETLAND DEFINITION
    4
    NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL DEFINITION
    6
    CANADIAN NATIONAL DEFINITION
    7
    OTHER INTERNATIONAL DEFINITIONS
    8
    ZAMBIAN WETLAND DEFINITION
    9
    FOOD SECURITY ACT DEFINITION
    10
    INTERPRETING SOIL TAXONOMY TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL HYDRIC SOILS
    176
    REFERENCES
    178
    WETLAND IDENTIFICATION AND BOUNDARY DELINEATION METHODS INTRODUCTION
    187
    EVOLUTION AND USE OF WETLAND IDENTIFICATION AND DELINEATION METHODS
    188
    DIFFERING WETLAND IDENTIFICATION AND BOUNDARY DELINEATION PROTOCOLS
    191
    CORPS MANUAL
    192
    EPA MANUAL
    194
    FOOD SECURITY ACT MANUAL
    195

    SELECTED STATE DEFINITIONS
    11
    FIELD APPLICATION OF WETLAND DEFINITIONS
    13
    REFERENCES
    14
    WETLANDS CONCEPTS FOR IDENTIFICATION AND DELINEATION INTRODUCTION
    17
    HOW WET IS A WETLAND?
    18
    FLOODING OR WATERLOGGING DURATION
    19
    FREQUENCY OF PROLONGED WETNESS
    20
    WETLAND HYDROLOGY DEFINED
    21
    SHORTCOMINGS OF THE REGULATORY CONCEPT
    22
    ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN DEFINING THE CRITICAL PERIOD FOR WETLAND HYDROLOGY
    24
    FAUNAL EVIDENCE
    28
    WETLAND FUNCTIONS EVIDENCE
    29
    ARE ALL WETLANDS AT LEAST PERIODICALLY ANAEROBIC REDUCED ENVIRONMENTS?
    30
    WHAT ARE COMMON TYPES OF WETLAND HYDROLOGY?
    31
    ARE WETLANDS ECOTONES?
    34
    ECOTONAL WETLANDS
    35
    NONECOTONAL WETLANDS
    37
    DO WETLANDS REALLY BECOME DRYLAND?
    39
    ARE SOME WETLANDS EPHEMERAL CYCLICAL FEATURES ON THE LANDSCAPE?
    42
    REFERENCES
    43
    PLANT INDICATORS OF WETLANDS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS INTRODUCTION
    51
    PLANT ADAPTATIONS TO FLOODING AND WATERLOGGING
    53
    MORPHOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS
    55
    HYPERTROPHIED STEMS
    56
    FLUTED TRUNKS
    57
    HOLLOW STEMS
    58
    SHALLOW ROOT SYSTEMS
    59
    ADVENTITIOUS ROOTS
    60
    SOIL WATER ROOTS
    62
    HYPERTROPHIED LENTICELS
    65
    OXIDIZED RHIZOSPHERES
    66
    LIFEFORM OR HABIT CHANCES
    67
    GERMINATION AND SEEDLING SURVIVAL
    68
    ACCELERATED STEM GROWTH
    69
    EVOLVING CONCEPT OF A HYDROPHYTE
    70
    PLANT SPECIFICITY
    71
    USING PLANTS TO IDENTIFY WETLANDS
    76
    FIELD INDICATORS OF HYDROPHYTIC VEGETATION
    78
    HUMAN EFFECTS ON WETLAND PLANT DISTRIBUTION
    80
    USING PLANTS TO PREDICT ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN WETLANDS
    81
    PLANTS AS WATER CHEMISTRY INDICATORS
    83
    PLANTS AS SOIL TYPE INDICATORS
    86
    PLANTS AS INDICATORS OF NATIVENESS
    87
    REFERENCES
    89
    VEGETATION SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS FOR WETLANDS INTRODUCTION
    101
    STAND IDENTIFICATION
    102
    LOCATING SAMPLING AREAS
    103
    SAMPLING VARIABLES
    104
    BASAL AREA
    106
    HEIGHT CLASSES
    110
    DOMINANCE
    111
    BASIC VEGETATION SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
    114
    NUMBER OF PLOTS
    116
    SHAPE OF PLOTS
    117
    POINT INTERCEPT SAMPLING
    118
    OTHER SAMPLING METHODS
    119
    EXERCISES IN DETERMINING THE PRESENCE OF HYDROPHYTIC VEGETATION
    122
    REFERENCES
    124
    SOIL INDICATORS OF WETLANDS INTRODUCTION
    127
    SOIL DEFINITION
    128
    SOIL COMPOSITION
    129
    SOIL COLOR
    130
    WATERLOGGING EFFECTS ON SOIL PROPERTIES
    133
    OTHER EFFECTS OF FLOODING ON SOIL DEVELOPMENT
    138
    FACTORS AFFECTING THE COLOR OF SOIL
    139
    WETLAND SOILS
    140
    THE EVOLVING HYDRIC SOIL DEFINITION AND TECHNICAL CRITERIA
    141
    GENERAL CONCEPT OF HYDRIC SOILS
    146
    LISTS OF HYDRIC SOILS AND HYDRIC SOIL MAP UNITS
    148
    MAJOR CATEGORIES OF HYDRIC SOILS
    149
    MINERAL HYDRIC SOILS
    151
    LISTS OF US HYDRIC SOIL INDICATORS
    152
    HYDRIC SOIL FIELD INDICATORS IN THE US
    160
    HISTIC MATERIALS IN MINERAL SOILS
    165
    THICK DARK SURFACE LAYERS
    168
    DEPLETED MATRIX
    169
    MOTTLED DEPLETED MATRIX
    170
    OTHER HYDRIC SOIL INDICATORS
    171
    INTERNATIONALLY RECOGNIZED HYDRIC SOIL PROPERTIES
    174
    MEASURING REDUCTION OR SOIL REDOX POTENTIAL
    175
    FEDERAL INTERAGENCY MANUAL
    196
    PRIMARY INDICATORS METHOD
    198
    CONNECTICUT METHOD
    200
    MASSACHUSETTS MANUAL
    202
    NEW YORK MANUAL
    203
    RHODE ISLAND METHOD
    204
    QUEBEC METHOD
    205
    EPA MANUAL
    208
    FEDERAL INTERAGENCY MANUAL
    209
    NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    214
    WETLAND DELINEATION TIPS
    215
    FIELD TIPS
    216
    PROFESSIONAL JUDGMENT
    218
    PROBLEM WETLANDS AND FIELD SITUATIONS INTRODUCTION
    221
    PROBLEMATIC WETLAND PLANT COMMUNITIES
    222
    SEASONALLY VARIABLE WETLAND PLANT COMMUNITIES
    225
    CYCLICAL WETLANDS IN ARID TO SUBHUMID REGIONS
    226
    CYCLICAL WETLANDS IN PERMAFROST REGIONS
    229
    PROBLEMATIC SOILS
    230
    SANDY HYDRIC ENTISOLS
    231
    NONSANDY HYDRIC ENTISOLS
    233
    HYDRIC SPODOSOLS
    234
    HYDRIC MOLLISOLS
    235
    HYDRIC VERTISOLS
    236
    WET ARIDISOLS
    237
    RED PARENT MATERIAL SOILS
    238
    DARKCOLORED PARENT MATERIAL SOILS
    239
    CRYIC SOILS
    240
    ANTHRAQUIC SOILS
    241
    RELICT HYDRIC SOILS
    242
    DRAINED HYDRIC SOILS PARTLY DRAINED WETLANDS
    243
    FARMED WETLANDS
    246
    HYDROLOGICALLY PROBLEMATIC WETLANDS
    247
    DRIEREND WETLANDS
    248
    PROBLEMATIC FIELD CONDITIONS
    249
    ROCKY LANDSCAPES
    250
    REFERENCES
    251
    WETLAND CLASSIFICATION INTRODUCTION
    257
    FEATURES USED TO CLASSIFY WETLANDS
    259
    HYDROLOGY
    260
    ORIGIN OF WATER
    262
    ECOSYSTEM FORMENERGY SOURCES
    263
    WETLAND CLASSIFICATION IN THE US
    264
    1950s TO 1960s FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE CLASSIFICATION
    265
    CURRENT FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICES WETLAND CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
    267
    HYDROGEOMORPHIC HGM CLASSIFICATION
    272
    FWSHGMTYPE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS
    274
    WETLAND CLASSIFICATION IN CANADA
    276
    OTHER WETLAND CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS
    279
    PEATLAND CLASSIFICATIONS
    280
    AUSTRALIA
    282
    WESTERN AUSTRALIA
    284
    REFERENCES
    285
    WETLANDS OF THE US AN INTRODUCTION WITH EMPHASIS ON THEIR PLANT COMMUNITIES INTRODUCTION
    291
    PALUSTRINE WETLANDS
    294
    EMERGENT WETLANDS
    296
    SCRUBSHRUB WETLANDS
    301
    FORESTED WETLANDS
    303
    ESTUARINE WETLANDS
    306
    ESTUARINE SCRUBSHRUB WETLANDS
    308
    ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SHORES
    309
    REFERENCES
    332
    WETLAND MAPPING AND PHOTOINTERPRETATION INTRODUCTION
    347
    MAP LIMITATIONS
    348
    NATIONAL WETLANDS INVENTORY MAPS
    350
    FEATURES MAPPED
    351
    NWI MAP STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
    355
    USES OF NWI MAPS
    356
    COUNTY SOIL SURVEYS
    358
    MAPPING PROCEDURES
    359
    SOIL SURVEY STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
    361
    USES OF SOIL SURVEYS
    362
    USE OF MAPS FOR REGULATORY DETERMINATIONS
    365
    WETLAND PHOTOINTERPRETATION
    366
    INTERPRETING ESTUARINE WETLANDS
    369
    INTERPRETING PALUSTRINE WETLANDS
    371
    INTERPRETING SUBMERGED AQUATIC VEGETATION
    375
    REFERENCES
    376
    INDEX
    381
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