Wettability at High Temperatures
N. Eustathopoulos, M.G. Nicholas, B. Drevet
Elsevier, Nov 24, 1999 - Technology & Engineering - 419 pages
The purpose of this book is to bring together current scientific understanding of wetting behaviour that has been gained from theoretical models and quantitative experimental observations. The materials considered are liquid metals or inorganic glasses in contact with solid metals or ceramics at temperatures of 200-2000oC.
Wetting has been a significant scientific concern for the last two centuries and reference will be made to classical work by nineteenth century scientists such as Dupré, Laplace and Young that was validated by observations of the behaviour of chemically inert ambient temperature systems.
In attempting to achieve the aims of the book, the text has been divided into ten Chapters that can be grouped into four stages of presentation. The first stage comprises two Chapters that review established and newly developed models for their relevance to wetting behaviour at high temperatures, including recent models that encompass the role of chemical reactions at the solid/liquid interfaces. Attention is paid both to equilibrium wetting behaviour (Chapter 1) and to the factors that control the approach to equilibrium (Chapter 2). Then follow Chapters concerned with experimental techniques for scientific measurement of the extent of wetting (Chapter 3) and with the surface energy data for both metals and non-metals that are essential for quantitative interpretation of wetting behaviour (Chapter 4). Descriptions of experimentally determined and quantified wetting behaviour are presented and interpreted in the third part comprising five Chapters dealing with the characteristics of metal/metal, metal/oxide, metal/non-oxide, metal/carbon and molten glass/solid systems. The book concludes with a Chapter commenting on the role of wetting behaviour in joining similar and dissimilar materials by liquid route techniques.
Chapter 2 Dynamics of wetting by metals and glasses
Chapter 3 Methods of measuring wettability parameters
Chapter 4 Surface energies
Chapter 5 Wetting properties of metalmetal systems
Chapter 6 Wetting properties of metaloxide systems
Chapter 7 Wetting properties of metalnonoxide ceramic systems
Chapter 8 Wetting properties of metalcarbon systems
Appendix C Contact angle hysteresis for heterogeneous solid surfaces
Appendix D Estimation of the mass of a sessile drop needed for an optimised σLV measurement
the case of cylindrical solids
Appendix F Surface energies of cubic diamond structure compounds
Appendix G Enthalpy of mixing of binary liquid alloys
Appendix H Secondary wetting
Appendix I Evaluation of the work of adhesion of Ni on SiC
List of symbols
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Acta adhesion adsorption alloys atoms bond bond energy braze bulk calculated capillary carbides ceramic Chatain chemical coefﬁcient components conﬁguration contact angle contact angle values covalent Cracow curve decrease deﬁned deoxidation dihedral angles dissolution dissolved Drevet droplets effect equation equilibrium contact angle Eustathopoulos eutectic experimental Figure ﬁrst ﬂow formation Gibbs energy graphite groove High Temperature Capillarity high vacuum increase inﬁnite inﬂuence INP Grenoble interface interfacial energies intermetallics Landry layer liquid metals materials measured melting point meniscus molar fraction molten monocrystalline Naidich Nicholas non-reactive metals non-wetting observed obtained ofthe oxide ﬁlms oxygen parameter partial pressure phase proﬁle pure metals radius Rado reaction product reactive Rivollet Section sessile drop experiments signiﬁcant signiﬁcantly sintered SiO2 Smolenice Castle solid surface solute spreading kinetics spreading rate substrate surface energy Table technique thermodynamic Tomsia triple line vapour vitreous carbon wettability wetting behaviour