What were the main ideas of the garden cities and how far did they succeed?
Essay from the year 2005 in the subject Art - Architecture / History of Construction, grade: 62 out of 80, University of Essex, course: Shaping the city, 6 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: What were the main ideas of the Garden City and how far did the ideas succeed? Over 100 years ago, Europe and its cities were struggling with a major problem that threatened politicians and workers in both ways: there were too many people for too little space. The Industrial Revolution had turned out to be a Pandora’s box that had been opened to let her plagues out on the city and their inhabitants: constant immigration, mass population, serious lack of housing and therefore catastrophic living conditions made life hard for the working class. There had to be found a solution to the problem of hygiene and housing, but without rebuilding the city nor creating further ghettos and slums for the people on the lowest part of the social range. In this essay I try to depict how Ebenezer Howard designed with his 1898 published work, “To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform”, a way out of this disaster. He not only worked it out practically, but thought out a whole ideology of how to decongest the major cities by building new so-called garden cities where people should live mutually, healthy and happily. While doing so, I will not only focus on the realisation of this new town-planning idea in England, but also on his consequences on the continent, especially in Germany, where it found numerous imitators. Finally, I shall look at what is left from Howard’s book in the practice of present design of better building and living.
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