Winter: An Ecological Handbook
This guide to various aspects of winter includes stresses of cold temperatures on animals, plants and people, coping behaviours and mechanisms, the forces of winter and the human perception and experience of the season.
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1 Winter Ecology
THE SCIENCE CALLED WINTER ECOLOGY
HISTORY OF WINTER ECOLOGY
2 What and Where is Winter?
THE SUN AND WINTER
3 Life Winter and Adaptation
ANIMAL ENERGETICS AND NUTRITION
PLANTS AND WINTER
INSECTS AND WINTER
4 People and Winter
HUMANS AND COLD
OUT IN WINTER
5 Experiencing Winter
activity adaptation air temperature amount animals avalanche biochemical body temperature carbon cause cell changes chemical clothing cold colder convection cooling covalent bonds creased decrease deer density depth hoar dioxide effects enzyme equipment ergy evaporation extremity Figure freezing frostbite gradient ground heat production hibernation hypothermia ice crystals increase insect inside insulation kcal layer light longwave radiation lower mals mammals membrane metabolic migrate mitochondria molecules moose move National Elk Refuge night occur organisms overwinter oxygen pack perature photosynthesis plants produce proteins quinzhee reduce SCREW factor season skiers skin sleeping sleeping pad slopes small mammals Snickers snow snowpack socks solar species spring stored strategies subnivean surface survival tempera temperature inversion thermal energy thermocouple tion trees ture warm warmer wavelengths weak bonds weather wind winter ecology Wyoming Yellowstone Yellowstone National Park