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bindery girls bindery trade bindery women binding blankbook bookbinding trade branches changes collating court cover day school Department of Labor earnings edition bindery eight-hour day Elizabeth Beardsley Butler employed in bookbinding employers establishments fact factory firm folding machine forewoman gathering machine gold leaf hand folder hand folding hours of labor households industry investigation irregular employment learners living machinery magazine bindery Manhattan ment methods night number of women Number Per Cent occupation operator organization overtime paid past period Pittsburgh Survey ployed position Postpaid printing processes public evening schools records RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION SCHOOLS OF WOMEN sections secured sewing sheets sixteen sixty hours slack season supply information TABLE tion Total trade union TRADES ATTENDING PUBLIC union binderies United States Census wage-earners week weekly wage wire-stitching machine woman women employed women workers workroom York City
Page 223 - That woman's physical structure and the performance of maternal functions place her at a disadvantage in the struggle for subsistence is obvious.
Page 255 - Is this a fair, reasonable and appropriate exercise of the police power of the State, or is it an unreasonable, unnecessary and arbitrary interference with the right of the individual to his personal liberty or to enter into those contracts in relation to labor which may seem to him appropriate or necessary for the support of himself and his family? Of course the liberty of contract relating to labor includes both parties to it. The one has as much right to purchase as the other to sell labor.
Page 223 - The legislation and opinions referred to in the margin may not be, technically speaking, authorities, and in them is little or no discussion of the constitutional question presented to us for determination, yet they are significant of a widespread belief that woman's physical structure, and the functions she performs in consequence thereof, justify special legislation restricting or qualifying the conditions under which she should be permitted to toil.
Page 222 - Then follow extracts from over ninety reports of committees, bureaus of statistics, commissioners of hygiene, inspectors of factories, both in this country and in Europe, to the effect that long hours of labor are dangerous for women, primarily because of their special physical organization.
Page 164 - The two sexes differ in structure of body, in the functions to be performed by each, in the amount of physical strength, in the capacity for long-continued labor, particularly when done standing, the influence of vigorous health upon the future well-being of the race, the self-reliance which enables one to assert full rights, and in the capacity to maintain the struggle for subsistence.
Page 226 - A living wage for all who devote their time and energy to industrial occupations. The monetary equivalent of a living wage varies according to local conditions, but must include enough to secure the elements of a normal standard of living; to provide for education and recreation; to care for immature members of the family; to maintain the family during periods of sickness; and to permit of reasonable saving for old age.
Page 14 - Time, making out the different Measurements ; preparing the Tools ; and making out New Patterns. The Back Finished in Compartments with parts of Gold studded Work, and open Work to Relieve the Rich close studded Work. All the Tools except Studded points, are obliged to be Workt off plain first — and afterwards the Gold laid on and •Worked off again.
Page 223 - The matter is discussed in these reports in different aspects, but all agree as to the danger. It would of course take too much space to give these reports in detail. Following them are extracts from similar reports discussing the general benefits of short hours from an economic aspect of the question. In many of these reports individual instances are given tending to support the general conclusion. Perhaps the general scope and character of all these reports may be summed up in what an inspector...