Women's Work?: American Schoolteachers, 1650-1920
University of Chicago Press, Apr 18, 2001 - Social Science - 192 pages
American schoolteaching is one of few occupations to have undergone a thorough gender shift yet previous explanations have neglected a key feature of the transition: its regional character. By the early 1800s, far higher proportions of women were teaching in the Northeast than in the South, and this regional difference was reproduced as settlers moved West before the Civil War. What explains the creation of these divergent regional arrangements in the East, their recreation in the West, and their eventual disappearance by the next century?
In Women's Work the authors blend newly available quantitative evidence with historical narrative to show that distinctive regional school structures and related cultural patterns account for the initial regional difference, while a growing recognition that women could handle the work after they temporarily replaced men during the Civil War helps explain this widespread shift to female teachers later in the century. Yet despite this shift, a significant gender gap in pay and positions remained. This book offers an original and thought-provoking account of a remarkable historical transition.
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administrative positions agricultural analysis antebellum average Carolina census chapter characteristics coefﬁcient colonial county-level dame school early economic England England towns Estimate evidence experience explain factors farm female teachers female-to-male wage ratio feminization ﬁgures ﬁnd ﬁrst FRMTOFAM gap in salaries gender differences gender gap girls graded schools Grand Rapids hiring women historians Illinois inﬂuenced institutional Iowa IPUMS Latin Lawrence Cremin less literacy male teachers Massachusetts measures Midwest nineteenth century norms North North Carolina Northeast northern tier ofﬁce patterns percent percentage of female percentage of women percentage points population prevalence of female proportion of female RATIODAY reﬂected reform regional differences regression regression analysis relative rural areas school boards school reports school systems schoolteaching settlers signiﬁcant social South southern speciﬁc teaching force tenure tier of counties tier of schools tion towns Tyack UGLENGTH ungraded schools variable winter sessions women among teachers women teachers York
Page 20 - ... advantage of the younger children, and a part in the winter months for the accommodation of those who are more advanced in age, and whose labour cannot be spared by their poor and industrious parents. The summer schools are taught by females ; and children of both sexes, of from four to ten years, attend, — females often much older. In these schools from twenty to forty, and sometimes twice that number of children, are taught reading, spelling, and English grammar by a single instructress....
Page 20 - But this requires so much mathematics, that even those, who acknowledge the justness of the principle, commonly content themselves to do less justice, and spare their heads the trouble of calculation. These appropriations are expended, a part in the summer months for the advantage of the younger children, and a part in the winter months for the accommodation of those, who are more advanced in age, and whose labor cannot be spared by their poor and industrious parents. The summer schools are taught...
Page 20 - ... taught, have a strong influence in forming the characters of the young. Although the progress in studies may be inconsiderable, yet they are important for the notions of order, decency, and good manners, which they inculcate ; and for the habits of attention and industry, which are there formed. The whole expense of a school of this kind, taught by a female, exclusive of the house, which in the country costs but a trifle, does not exceed from two to three dollars per week. For this very inconsiderable...
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