Women's health in menopause: behaviour, cancer, cardiovascular disease, hormone replacement therapy
Few topics in women's medicine today are as fraught with confusion and controversy as the question of appropriate treatment for menopausal symptoms and the prevention of negative long term health outcomes common to post-menopausal women. Cardiovascular disease (CVD), osteoporosis, and cancer -- the most common causes of death, disability and impaired quality of life for women -- can potentially be prevented or forestalled by dietary, behavioral, and drug interventions. A better understanding of the natural history of the menopause is critical to providing better care. If women and their physicians have a better understanding of predictors of risk, they could make more informed decisions about interventions related to menopausal symptoms, CVD, osteoporosis and gynecologic and breast cancer. Few other recently introduced medical interventions have as great a potential of affecting morbidity and mortality as does hormone replacement therapy (HRT). HRT has produced effect on health risk: some are reduced, some are raised, and some uncertain, and these data are interpreted differently by various scientific, medical and consumer groups.
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1994 Kluwer Academic angina associated atherosclerosis blood flow breast cancer breast cancer risk cancer in women cardiovascular disease cells cholesterol clinical cohort collagen coronary artery disease coronary heart disease decrease Department of Obstetrics dose effect of estrogen endometrial cancer endothelium Engl estradiol estradiol-17p estrogen deficiency estrogen replacement therapy estrogen therapy evidence follicles Fondazione Giovanni Lorenzini fractures function gender gonadal Gynaecology Health in Menopause hormone replacement therapy hot flashes incidence increase Lancet lipid lipoprotein Lp(a menopause menstrual cycle metabolism Milan ITALY mortality myocardial infarction Obstet Gynecol Obstetrics and Gynecology oophorectomy oral contraceptives osteoporosis ovarian failure ovaries P. G. Crosignani patients postmenopausal estrogen postmenopausal women premenopausal prevention progestin progestogen Publishers and Fondazione rates receptors reduced relative risk risk factors risk of breast routes of administration significant smoking steroids symptoms syndrome tissue treatment triglycerides urinary uterine vaginal vascular vasodilation Women's Health