Work-rich and Work-poor: Three Decades of Change
Though the total number of people in UK employment is now higher than it was in the mid-1970s, changes in the distribution of work leave many more families with no job and no earnings. In this report, Richard Berthoud has undertaken a detailed analysis of UK trends over the past thirty years. About two million adults are in work today, who probably would not have had a job in the mid-1970s. They are mainly mothers, especially those with adequate qualifications, good health, and a working partner. On the other hand, there are another two million adults who would have had a job thirty years ago, but are now out of work. They are mainly disabled men, with poor educational qualifications, and no working partner. These two trends have combined to increase inequality between the work-rich (families with two jobs) and the work-poor (families with no job). The proportion of work-poor has doubled from 7% to 14% over thirty years. Most of them live on social security benefits and have very l
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The personal distribution of employment
Families and employment 30
Review and conclusions 44
30-year period analysis annual unemployment rate associated Berthoud business cycle chapter childless women cohabiting controlling for annual demand for labour disabled people's disadvantage earners educational qualifications employment gap employment position employment probabilities family non-employment family positions family structure GCSE/0 level gender and family growth HM Treasury husbands income increase indirect employment rate individuals inequality interaction terms job prospects Jobseeker's Allowance JOSEPH ROWNTREE FOUNDATION labour market less limiting longstanding illness logistic regression coefficients lone parents Married couples men's employment non-disabled non-employment rate non-working families number of adults number of children number of no-earner number of non-working older one-earner outcomes overall number panel of Figure partnered mothers Partnered woman percentage points personal employment equation personal employment rates polarisation potential workers proportion of adults reduced regional unemployment sample shows Single woman steady thick grey line total number two-earner families underlying trend way-points wives women without children work-rich and work-poor