Working out of poverty: job creation and the quality of growth in Africa
Governments in Africa and their stakeholders have been disappointed with the number of wage and salary jobs that have been created over the last decade or more. Even in countries that experienced both strong economic growth and rapid poverty reduction during this period, job creation has lagged behind expectations. Faced with a rapidly growing labor force, Africa has to find new ways to create better paying jobs.'Working Out of Poverty' reviews the literature and presents original research by the authors analyzing job creation in Sub-Saharan Africa in light of economic performance over the decade and more since 1995. The book identifies factors that impact job creation, both inside the labor market (such as labor supply and demand) and outside of it (overall investment climate.)'Working Out of Poverty' focuses on the following key questions: How has the structure of economic growth and labor demand shaped the job creation process? What policies have been pursued to raise the quality of the African labor force? What does the expanding "informal" sector mean for the labor market and the quality of growth? Is it a route out of poverty or a low-skills trap?
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The Economic Environment
Missing Private Sector Demand
The State of the African Labor Force
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adult African countries African labor agriculture Asia average Botswana Burkina Faso Cameroon child labor constraints costs Cote d'lvoire definition earnings economic activity economic growth effects employer enrollment especially Ethiopia factors firms flexibility formal sector jobs gender Ghana growing HIV/AIDS household enterprise improve income increase job creation job growth Kenya Kielland labor force participation labor market labor regulations labor supply Lesotho LFPR Male Female manufacturing Millennium Development Goal Mozambique nomic nonagricultural noneconomic activities nonfarm outcomes percentage poverty reduction primary education primary school private sector productivity quality of growth returns to education returns to primary Ruffer and Knight rural salary employment salary jobs secondary self-employment Senegal share skills deficits Sub-Saharan Africa Tanzania Uganda unions urban areas urban informal sector urban labor force vocational and technical wage and salary wage data wage job women workforce World Bank 2006f Zambia Zimbabwe