World Civilization: A Brief History

Front Cover
Rowman & Littlefield, 1993 - History - 575 pages
Robin W. Winks placed particular emphasis on those developments that most directly explain the nature of the modern world: social diffusion, group and national consciousness, technological change, religious identities-those aspects of intellectual history that have contributed most to our current dilemmas. In turn this means that there is more in World Civilization: A Brief History about nationalism, imperialism, or ethnic identities than there is about monarchies, feudalism, or diplomacy. The result of the strategic and intellectual decisions made with respect to this textbook is that its proportions are not the customary ones. Particular emphasis is placed on the early origins of civilizations, on Greece and Rome, and on the period of the so-called barbarian invasions, because it is by studying these periods that students may best learn how societies are formed. Particular emphasis is also placed on the period from the French Revolution on, for it is the events of the last two hundred years that have most closely shaped our present condition. This book can be read, straight through and in its entirety, as an interpretive statement about Western history written by a person who knew a good bit about non-Western history and who could thus throw into perspective the unusual, the commonplace, and the comparable in that sector of history conventionally labeled 'Western'. The text draws on over thirty-five years of discovering, in the classroom, what students themselves wish to ask about the past rather than what a body of scholars may have concluded they should wish to ask. Though this book is largely about Western civilization, it is also about world civilizations, for from the eighteenth century forward—and in many aspects of life, much earlier-the non-West has interacted with the West in such a way as to make it virtually impossible to separate one from the other when dealing at this level of generalization. As a teacher of the history of exploration and discovery, of imperialism and decolonization,
 

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Contents

I RECOVERABLE HISTORY BEGINS PEOPLE OF RIVER AND PLAIN
18
THE TOOLMAKER
19
THE BEGINNINGS OF AGRICULTURE
20
PRIMITIVE TRADE
22
PRIESTLY CASTES
23
TIGRISEUPHRATES DOMINANCE
25
CLIMATE
29
ON THE EDGE OF THE EARLIEST CIVILIZATIONS THE SPREAD OF INFLUENCES
31
PORTUGAL AND SPAIN
234
FRANCE HOLLAND AND ENGLAND
241
THE GREAT WAR FOR EMPIRE
245
THE MODERN STATE
247
THE MODERN REVOLUTION IN THE WEST
255
CHANGING SOCIETIES
257
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
261
THE PROBLEM OF HISTORIOGRAPHY
265

DESERT MOUNTAIN AND FOREST CIVILIZATION AND BARBARISM IN THE SECOND MILLENNIUM bc
34
MYCENAE
36
THE HEBREWS
37
AN AGE OF HEROES THE BEGINNINGS OF MEDITERRANEAN ANTIQUITY
41
LEGENDARY HISTORY OF ISRAEL
42
ZOROASTRIANISM
45
Mediterranean Antiquity 500 BCAD 750
53
OUR GRAECOROMAN WORLD
55
GREEK SOCIETY AND THE ORIGINS OF HELLENISTIC CULTURE
60
SPARTA
62
ATHENS
63
THE GOLDEN AGE OF GREECE
69
THE POLIS
72
SOCRATES PLATO ARISTOTLE
74
DECLINE OF THE ATHENIAN EMPIRE
77
ALEXANDER THE GREAT
79
FROM THE POLIS TO THE WORLD HELLENISTIC CIVILIZATION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AND NEAR EAST
81
INTERDEPENDENCE
84
PTOLEMAIC EGYPT
86
PALESTINE
88
A WORLD EXPANDS THE RISE OF ROME
93
THE RISE OF ROME
96
INTELLECTUAL LIFE
102
TOWARD A WORLD STATE
105
THE BEGINNINGS OF CHRISTIANITY
112
THE CRISIS OF LATE ANTIQUITY TRANSFORMATION OF THE MEDITERRANEAN WORLD
116
DIOCLETIAN AND CONSTANTINE
118
THE DECLINE OF ROME
120
BARBARIAN INVASIONS
122
BYZANTIUM
123
AT THE GATES OF THE WEST
127
THE PROBLEM OF SECURITY
131
Traditional Europe AD 7501789
133
THE PART WE CALL THE MIDDLE
135
REGIONAL RESOURCES AND UNIVERSAL AMBITIONS 750950
141
CONSTANTINOPLE AND COSMOPOLITANISM
142
ISLAMIC CULTURE
145
GERMANIC EUROPE AND THE WESTERN FRONTIER
149
GROWTH OF CHRISTIANITY
150
MONASTICISM
151
ASCENDENCY OF THE WEST
155
CHARLEMAGNE
158
ON THE EDGE OF CIVILIZATION
160
THE MAKING OF EUROPE 9501300
162
THE IDEA OF EUROPE
163
AN END TO NONEUROPEAN INVADERS
166
AN AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
167
TERRITORIAL PRINCIPALITIES
169
FEUDALISM
171
THE DICTATES OF GEOGRAPHY
174
ECCLESIATICAL CHANGE
175
THE WEST STRIKES BACK
178
CRISIS AND RECOVERY IN TRADITIONAL EUROPE 13001715
182
DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE
186
RISE OF THE MONARCHIES
188
THE PAPACY
191
THREATS FROM NEW INVADERS
194
THE RENAISSANCE
195
THE REFORMATION
202
A NEW WORLD IN THE MAKING MODERN EUROPE
212
THE AGE OF DISCOVERY
213
THE BASES OF EXPANSION
216
EARLY CAPITALISM
219
MERCANTILISM
226
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS
230
POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
233
RESTRUCTURING POWER AND SOCIETY 17151815
270
No Break with the Past The Nineteenth Century in Perspective
281
THE AGE OF THE DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTION
283
FROM REVOLUTION TO REVOLUTION 17891848
289
THE NEW REVOLUTIONS
292
THE ENDURING IDEAS FINDING THEORETICAL BASES FOR SECURITY
297
SURGE OF NATIONALISM POSTPONEMENT
302
SECULAR ATTEMPTS TO CONTROL HUMAN DESTINY
306
SOCIALISM
307
MARXISM
310
DARWIN AND DARWINISM SALVATION THROUGH SCIENCE
317
EUROPES NEW NATIONS NATIONALISM TRIUMPHANT 18481914
324
GERMANY
329
New Wine in Old Bottles Today Enters the Front Door 18481919
339
AN AGE OF INSECURITY
341
THE POLITICS OF EUROPES TRADITIONAL POWERS 18481914
349
GREAT BRITAIN
355
AUSTRIAHUNGARY
359
RUSSIA
368
A CENTURY IN SEARCH OF SECURITY SOCIETY AND GROWTH
375
DECLINE OF THE WEST?
380
IMPERIALISM
384
NONRATIONAL IMPULSES TO EMPIRE
389
DID COLONIES PAY?
394
NONWESTERN RESPONSES TO THE WEST
397
THE BALANCE SHEET
404
THE BRITISH EMPIRE
406
FROM COLONY TO NATION
410
AMERICAN AND RUSSIAN EXPANSIONISM
414
THE NEW IMPERIALISM
421
THE FIRST WORLD WAR CAUSES CONDUCT CONSEQUENCES
425
THE WINDOW ON THE SEA
426
THE BOER WAR
428
SECRET ALLIANCE SYSTEMS
429
THE ART OF POSTPONEMENT
431
TINDERBOX FOR WAR
433
HURTING TOWARD WAR
436
THE BALKAN LEAGUE
437
CHANCE AND HISTORY
442
WHOS RESPONSIBLE?
444
THE FRONTS
445
IN EUROPE
446
THE HOME FRONT
453
BRINGING AMERICA INTO THE WAR
454
THE COLLAPSE OF THE POWERS
457
NEW WEAPONS NEW WAYS
460
THE PEACE
462
The Years That Became Ours 1919 to the 1990s
467
THE SEARCH FOR NORMALCY
469
THE HIDDEN POLITICAL COLLAPSE OF EUROPE
472
COMMUNISM
475
THE RISE OF FASCISM AND NAZISM
480
THE SECOND WORLD WAR AN ERA OF CONTINUOUS WAR FOR CONTINUOUS PEACE
485
ORIGINS
486
THE WAR
491
THE WEST SINCE 1945
499
THE COLD WAR
501
THE END OF EMPIRES
506
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND EUROPEAN ECONOMIC ADVANCES
510
TIME OF DANGER TIME OF CHALLENGE
516
EMERGENCE OF SOCIAL ISSUES
518
EPILOGUE
525
WHEN YOU WANT TO READ MORE
529
INDEX
551
Copyright

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About the author (1993)

Robin W. Winks was the Randolph W. Townsend Jr. Professor of History at Yale University. Professor Winks was a noted scholar in a wide range of subjects, including British imperial history, Canadian-American relations, comparative American history, conservation history and the theory and development of espionage. He chaired the Department of History at Yale 1996-1999 and was master of Berkeley College 1977-1991.

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