Xunzi And Early Chinese Naturalism
Early Chinese naturalism refers to a unique Chinese philosophical orientation that seeks no math is in the realm of nature. In early China, where the notion of transcendence never occupied a central position in philosophical discourse, it was perfectly reasonable for philosophers to turn to "naturalness," or "spontaneity" of nature as a source of value of guidance for a way of life. Janghee Lee argues that the most prominent features of Xunzi's philosophy - his famous doctrine that human nature is bad and his strong emphasis as usual - can best be understood as Xunzi's critical response to the naturalism trend of his time, which can be found not only in Daoist philosophers like Zhuangzi, but also in other Confucian philosophers such as Mencius. According to the author Xunzi's concept of xin (mind heart) provides a crucial hint for understanding his ritual oriented philosophy, clearly contrasted with the naturalistic tendencies of early Chinese philosophy.
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achieved ancient Chinese aspect of xin autonomous agent autonomous faculties autonomous xin autonomy of xin Cambridge chap chapter Chinese philosophy Chuang Tzu concept Confucian Confucius critical cultivation Daoist deliberative activity deliberative exertion distinction emotions and desires empirical emptiness established ethical realm faculty of self-governance faculty of xin given by tian Guanzi heaven and earth holistic Hsun Tzu human agency human morality human xing humankind Kant Kant's Kantian Knoblock know dao knowledge Legalists Mencian Mencius Mohists moral law moral theory Mozi natural dispositions natural realm natural world naturalistic neo-Confucians Nivison normative notion of autonomy notion of xin noumena objective passage persons philosophical placidity psychological reason sage seems self-cultivation sense of appropriateness sense organs social source of morality spontaneous T'ien tian tendencies thinking tion transcendental transform unity University Press Watson xin's xing is bad Xunzi Xunzi's moral Xunzi's notion Xunzi's philosophy Xunzian Yang Liang Zhu Xi Zhuangzi