Yearbook of the American Iron and Steel Institute

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American Iron and Steel Institute., 1915 - Iron industry and trade
 

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Page 29 - ... Modern American Blast Furnace Practice," read in 1914, that "the early coke produced in our byproduct ovens, even from the same coals as were successful in the beehive oven, burned too slowly and made our furnace operations exceedingly difficult, by preventing rapid and continuous movement of the stock. The lack of knowledge and experience along these lines was responsible for the slow progress attending the introduction of byproduct ovens in this country.
Page 134 - Few of our authorities, however, seem to recognize the fact that in the most common of all annealing of steel wire — that to remove the effects of cold work such as drawing — it is not necessary to reach the critical temperature, which is 1300 F., or higher, depending on the carbon content. A temperature of 1100 F. is entirely sufficient to relieve the strained condition of the grain shown in Fig.
Page 167 - ... pounds and within the limit of the money charge which would be made for the minimum carload shipment. To have only the two units for rate-making, the carload lot and the less-than-carload lot, was not advisable even twentyfive years ago, when the minimum was 20,000 pounds and the carload rate was applied upon relatively small quantities. Under the present-day conditions, when the shipper is expected to furnish full loads for cars of 40 and 50 tons capacity and requested to...
Page 26 - The physical standard by which blast furnace coke is generally measured, besides hardness and resistance to abrasion, is its porosity. It has been recognized that an open cell structure favors rapid combustion whereas a dense structure retards it.
Page 165 - During the last twenty years, the maximum freight car capacity has increased only 100 per cent., while the locomotive capacity during the same period has increased 400 per cent.
Page 167 - ... 20 tons in order to get the carload rate, there is still less justification for the failure of the carriers to work out some graduated scale of rates, according to the weight of such consignments, or in some other way make freight tariffs which would permit the forwarding of any shipment, however large or small, at a rate which would bear some consistent relation to the cost of service.
Page 98 - During the entire run, the physical condition of the slag has been excellent. After flushes and casts, the runners contained practically no cinder, all having drained clean. The slag was invariably hot and exceptionally fluid.
Page 135 - It is found in practice that in cold drawing from a soft rod or annealed wire, the increase in tensile strength is a direct function of the amount of cold work, almost independent of other conditions.
Page 165 - ... iron and steel manufacturers in increasing their facilities and then making the best use of them. This can be accomplished by doubling the capacity of freight cars, making the limit 300,000 pounds per car with six wheel trucks. The gross weight of such cars loaded would not be as much as the new Mallet locomotives that are being very generally adopted.
Page 28 - With slow-burning coke, on the other hand, the molecules of oxygen are not all able to combine immediately with their molecules of carbon. The result is that the combustion is carried higher up in the furnace, the heat generated by combustion is spread over a larger area, and the top temperature increases.

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