Youth in Africa's Labor Market

Front Cover
Marito H. Garcia, Jean Fares
World Bank Publications, Apr 1, 2008 - Business & Economics - 326 pages
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The authors examine the challenges facing Africa's youth in their transition from school to working life, and propose a policy framework for meeting these challenges. Topics covered include the effect of education on employment and income, broadening employment opportunities, and enhancing youth capabilities. The book includes a CD-ROM of case studies of four countries and household data on 13 countries.
 

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Contents

Table 22 Type and Sector of Employment of Child Workers by Age Group Gender and UrbanRural Location in Ethiopia
19
Table 23 Effect of Poverty and Household Income Shocks on Labor Force Participation of Urban Dwellers Ages 1214 in Burkina Faso
20
Table 24 Duration of the SchooltoWork Transition in Selected Countries
22
Figure 22 The Late Age of School Leaving Is Not an Indication of High Educational Attainment in Burkina Faso
23
Table 25 Length and Timing of Transition from School to Work by Gender Residence and Country
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Table 31 Time Use among Male and Female Youth in Selected Countries
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Table 32 Time Use among Rural and Urban Youth in Selected Countries
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Figure 31 Time Use by Income Quintile Varies across Countries
34
Table 33 Time Use among Teenagers and Young Adults in Selected Countries
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Figure 32 Time Use by Patterns of Young People Vary across Age Groups and Countries
36
Figure 41 Household Earnings Increase with Educational Attainment in Burkina Faso
41
Table 41 Effect of Primary and Secondary Education on Wages by Age Group 1992 and 1999 in Uganda
42
Figure 42 More Education Does Not Always Reduce the Rate of Unemployment among Youth
43
Table 42 Determinants of Schooling for Urban and Rural Youth by Gender in Tanzania
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Table 51 Determinants of Urban and Rural Youth Unemployment in Tanzania
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Table 52 Determinants of Urban and Rural Youth Inactivity in Tanzania
51
Table 54 Response of Youth Employment to Demographic and Economic Shocks for Females by Level of Education and UrbanRural Location in Et...
54
Table 55 Modality of Employment by Youth and Adults in Selected Countries
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Table 56 Modality of Employment of Rural and Urban Youth in Selected Countries
57
Table 57 Employment Modality by Gender Age Group and UrbanRural Location in Tanzania
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Figure 51 Most Youth Perform Unpaid Family Work Predominantly in Agriculture in Ethiopia
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Table 58 Multiple Job Holding and Underemployment by Gender Age and UrbanRural Location in Burkina Faso
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Figure 52 Unemployment Is Higher among Youth Than Adults in Almost All SubSaharan African Countries
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Figure 53 Many Urban Youth Remain Unemployed for More Than a Year in Ethiopia
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Figure 54 Unemployment Spells Last Much Longer in Urban Than in Rural Areas in Tanzania
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Table 59 Reported Reasons for Inactivity among Male Youth in Tanzania
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Table 61 Promising Interventions in Burkina Faso Ethiopia Tanzania and Uganda
74
Table 6B1 Selected EmploymentRelated Programs by Category Location and Age Group Served in Burkina Faso
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Table 6B2 Quality of EmploymentRelated Interventions in Burkina Faso
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Table 6B3 Quality of Evaluations of EmploymentRelated Interventions in Burkina Faso
84
Table 6C1 Selected EmploymentRelated Programs by Category Location and Age of Group Served in Ethiopia
86
Table 6C2 Quality of EmploymentRelated Interventions in Ethiopia
89
Table 6C3 Quality of Evaluations of EmploymentRelated Programs in Ethiopia
90
Table 6D1 Selected EmploymentRelated Programs by Category Location and Age Group Served in Tanzania
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Table 6D2 Quality of EmploymentRelated Interventions in Tanzania
95
Table 6D3 Quality of Evaluations of EmploymentRelated Programs in Tanzania
97
Country Case Studies
107
Figure 71 Regional Unemployment Rates 2003
112
Figure 72 Average Years of Schooling by Region and Year
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Figure 73 Educational Attainment of Nonstudent Youth SubSaharan Africa Region
114
Figure 74 Unemployment Rate for Youth by Educational Attainment in SubSaharan African Countries
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Table 71 Time Use Patterns for Youth Ages 1524 by Country
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Table 72 Time Use Patterns for Youth Ages 1524 by Sex and Country
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Table 73 Time Use Patterns for Youth Ages 1524 by Residence and Country
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Table 74 Time Use Patterns for Youth by Age Group and Country
119
Figure 75 Changes in the Time Use Patterns of Young People by Age and Country
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Table 75 Youth Unemployment Inactivity and Jobless Indicators by Age Group and Country
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Figure 76 Unemployment Ratios for Young People Ages 1524 by Sex Residence School Attendance and Country
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Figure 712 The Proportion of Children Ages 812 Who Are Economically Active
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Table 81 School and Work Status of Females and Males in Burkina Faso by Age 19932003
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Table 82 Employment and Unemployment Rates among Burkinabes Not Enrolled in School by Age and Gender 19932003
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Table 83 Employment and Unemployment Rates in Burkina Faso by Age Gender and Education 19932003
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Table 84 Employment and Unemployment Rates in Urban and Rural Areas of Burkina Faso 19932003
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Table 85 Percentage of Burkinabes Underemployed or Holding More Than One Job 2003
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Table 86 Percentage of Burkinabes Holding More Than One Job by Household Income Quintile 2003
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Table 87 Household Income Shocks and Labor Force Participation in Burkina Faso 2003
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Table 88 Changes in Households Economic Conditions and Labor Force Participation
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Table 89 School Enrollment Probits for Burkina Faso 19932003
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Table 810 Rate of Return to Schooling in Burkina Faso 2003
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Table 811 Instrumental Variables Estimates of Rate of Return to Schooling
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Table 812 Panel Data IV Estimates
176
Table 91 Macroeconomic Indicators for Ethiopia 19822001
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Figure 91 Ethiopias Labor Force Tripled between 1960 and 2002
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Figure 92 Gross Primary School Enrollment in Ethiopia More Than Doubled between 1995 and 2003
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Figure 93 Rural Residents and Boys in Ethiopia Are More Likely to Work as Children Than Urban Residents and Girls
186
Table 92 Work and School Activity of Ethiopian Children by Age Gender and UrbanRural Location
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Table 93 Youth Unemployment Inactivity and Joblessness Indicators in Ethiopia by Age Group Gender and UrbanRural Location
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Figure 94 The Unemployment Ratio and Rate of Joblessness among 15 to 24YearsOlds in Ethiopia Are About Average for SubSaharan Africa
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Figure 95 Youth Unemployment Ratios in Ethiopia Are Much Higher in Urban Than in Rural Areas
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Figure 97 The Duration of Urban Unemployment in Ethiopia Is a Cause for Concern
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Table 94 Work Modality Sector of Employment and Average Weekly Hours of Employed Ethiopian Youth
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Figure 98 Youth Have Weaker Labor Indicators Than Adults in Ethiopia but Unemployment among Both Groups Is Low
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Figure 99 The Unemployment Ratio among Ethiopian Adults of All Ages Is Higher in Urban Than in Rural Areas
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Figure 910 Ethiopian Youth Begin the Transition from School to Work Later Than Youth in Other Countries in SubSaharan Africa
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Table 96 SchooltoWork Transition Points in Ethiopia by Gender and UrbanRural Location
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Figure 911 Ethiopian Children Who Start School Tend to Remain in School through Their Teens
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Figure 913 Ethiopian Children Begin Work Much Earlier Than Children in Other Countries in SubSaharan Africa
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Figure 914 Employment Rates among Ethiopians Ages 2024 Decrease with Education and Unemployment Rates Increase
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Table 97 Employment Status and Employment Modality of Ethiopians Not in School by Educational Attainmentand Age Group
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Figure 915 The Higher Their Level of Education the More Likely Ethiopians Ages 2024 Are to Work in Wage Employment
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Probit Estimates Using Regionwide Definition of Local Labor Market
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Probit Estimates Obtained Using Indicators of Local Labor Market Separated for Rural and Urban Areas
208
Table 101 Labor Force and Schooling Status in Tanzania 200001
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Table 102 Nature of Employment in Tanzania 200001
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Table 103 Activity and Unemployment Status in Tanzania 200001
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Table 104 Reasons Why Tanzanians Are Not Looking for or Are Not Available for Work
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Table 105 Job Search Methods in Tanzania
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Table 106 Determinants of Labor Force Status and Schooling Choices of Youth in Tanzania
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Figure 111 Income Rises with Level of Education in Uganda
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Table 111 A Large Proportion of Ugandas Labor Force Works Outside the Formal Sector
266
Table 112 The Percentage of Ugandans with Some Secondary Education Rose between 1992 and 2002
270
Table 113 The Free Primary Education Policy Has Freed Household Resources Allowing Families to Keep Children in School Longer
271
Table 114 The Average Educational Level of Household Heads in Uganda Rose between 1992 and 2002
272
Table 115 Educational Levels Increased in Both Rural and Urban Areas
273
Table 116 Employment Rose between 1992 and 1999 Particularly among Young Women
275
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