Demand for aflatoxin-safe maize in Kenya: Dynamic response to price and advertising
Intl Food Policy Res Inst, Jan 3, 2019 - Political Science - 24 pages
This paper characterizes consumer demand for food safety and the dynamic impact of a social marketing campaign to promote a tested, third party verified maize flour in Kenya, where dietary exposure to the fungal toxin aflatoxin is a major public health concern. Consumption of high levels of aflatoxin can be fatal, but this is relatively rare. Of greater concern is chronic exposure, which has been linked in numerous studies to liver cancer and may also contribute to child stunting. A significant proportion of the maize consumed in Kenya, where it is the primary dietary staple, fails to meet regulatory standards. One study reported widely in the Kenyan press found that 65% of maize samples collected from 20 major millers did not meet the national standard (Gathura, 2011) and another based on over 900 samples collected from retailers found that 26% of branded maize flour was above this standard (Hoffmann and Moser, 2017).
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1M shops 4-6 post-marketing week active marketing afla aflatoxin exposure aflatoxin testing analysis APTECA logo baseline shop-level means baseline survey branded flour control group control shops County fixed effects discount 1D discount treatment effect of marketing endline survey errors in parentheses fading food safety claim formal sector impact of marketing increase informal market Kenya Kenyan Shillings leafletting levels of aflatoxin log of pre-intervention maize flour brands maize flour sales maize grains maize millers maize purchases marketing campaign Marketing week means of respondent Number of shops Ordered probit Osho post-discount week post-intervention promoted brand proportion of consumers respondent characteristics shown sales tracking samples second discount week shop-weeks shown in Table Single marketing standard errors study brand Table A2 temporary discount tested for aflatoxin total maize flour treatment group treatments 1M Tupike and total Tupike sales variable week 1 1M week 3 MD week of active Weeks 4-6 post-marketing whole grain