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The Negroes of Farmville, Virginia: A social study, by W. E. Burghardt s"
Du Bois, Ph.D ---------------------------------------------------------

Incomes, wages, and rents in Montreal, by Herbert Brown Ames, B. A....
Digest of recent reports of State bureans of labor statistics:

Hlinois --------------------------------------------------------------. 52-54 Maine ---------------------------------------------------------------. 54, 55 Massachusetts ---------------------------------------------------..... 55, 56 || | | Ohio.----------------------------------------------------------------- 57, 58 || Census of Massachusetts for 1895.---------------------------------........ 59-61 Digest of recent foreign statistical publications.--------...-----...-------.. 62-75

Decisions of courts affecting labor. --------------------------------...----. 76-117

Laws of various States relating to labor enacted since January 1, 1896. . . . . . 118-139
Recent Government contracts -------------...----------------------...... 140

III

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For many reasons it would appear that the time is ripe for undertaking a thorough study of the economic condition of the American Under the direction of the United States Commissioner of

Negro.
Labor the present study was made during July and August, 1897, as
the first of a series of investigations of small, well-defined groups of

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Negroes in various parts of the country.
In this work there has been but the one object of ascertaining, with

as near an approach to scientific accuracy as possible, the real condi

tion of the Negro. PRINCE EDWARD COUNTY. . . . 't

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Prince Edward County is a small irregular quadrangle of about 300 square miles, situated in the middle country of Virginia, between the Piedmont region and tide water, about 57 miles southwest of Richmond, # and midway between Petersburg and Lynchburg. This county is thus | near the geographical center of the State, and is also in the center of a *. district that produces seven-eighths of the tobacco crop of Virginia. || The county seat is Farmville, a market town of 2,500 inhabitants, situated on the upper waters of the Appomattox. This county has had an interesting history as regards its population. ' A century ago it had a population of 8,000, evenly divided between ||" whites and blacks; to-day it has a population of over 14,000, but the . increase is almost entirely among the blacks, the number of whites

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still remaining under 5,000. The following table shows the white and black population of the county at each census from 1790 to 1890:

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Of the total population of the county, less than one-third live in towns of 25 or more inhabitants, leaving the great mass of the people thor. oughly rural and agricultural. Before the late war more than 75 per cent of the farms were of 100 acres or over, and were worked by gangs of from 10 to 50 slaves. (a) By 1870 these farms had become so broken up that nearly 40 per cent of them were less than 50 acres in size. Since then something of a reaction has taken place and more waste land brought under cultivation, so that in 1890 31 per cent of the farms were less than 50 acres in size.

The following table shows the number and per cent of farms in Prince Edward County, according to size, at each census from 1860 to 1890:

NUMBER AND PER CENT OF FARMS £, #NCE EDWARD COUNTY, BY SIZE, 1860 TO 1890.

1860. 1870. - 1880. 1800.

Number. Percent. Number. Percent. Number. Percent. i Number. Percent.

Size of farms.

Under 10 acres. -------------. '.......... | 23 3.75 34 .23 65 5.93 10 or tunder 20 acres. 6 1, 23 49 7.99 152 14. 44 118 10. 77 20 or under 50 acres. 45 9. 24 164 26.75 161 15. 29 150 14.51 50 or under 100 | | i | *** - - - - - - - - - - - - 70 14.37 120 10.58 147 13.96 171 15.60 100 or atnder 500 *T**ś - - - - - - - - - - - - 3.18 65.30 232 37.85 472 44.82 505 46.08 500 or under 1,000 f acres - - - - - - - 46 0.45 23 3.75 73 0.93 67 0.11 1,000 acres or - 2 .41 2 | .33 14 1.33 11 1.00 Total .....---- * * * 613 100.00 * * * 1,096 100.00 |

At the same time tenants and métayers, who had a large part of the land in cultivation in 1870, have decreased from 1880 to 1890, so that over 70 per cent of the farms are now cultivated by their owners.

The following table, compiled from the United States census returns (report on agriculture), shows for the county the number of farms of

a There were 582 slaveholders in the county in 1860, holding 7,311 slaves. Of these slaves 1,289 were held in lots of from 1 to 9 by 303 owners, and the rest by 279 owners. See census of 1860.

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and

various sizes cultivated by owners, rented for money, and rented on

Shares in 1880 and 1890:
TENURE OF FARMS IN PRINCE EDWARD COUNTY, 1880 AND 1890.

Cultivated by Rented for ". Rented on shares.

Size of farms. owners. - -

1880. 1890. 1830. 1890 | 1880. 1890. l - " Under 10 acres..... | 15 35 3 | 11 16 19 10 or under 20 acres 47 76 # 12 65 30 20 or under 50 acres. 68 103 33 19 60 37 50 or under 100 acres.. 80 127 29 | 30 38 14 100 or under 500 acres... 332 366 70 68 70 71 500 or under 1,000 acres -. - 56 60 $ l 0 6 1,000 acres or over ............... * - - - - - - 9 | 8 4 1 1 2 Total .....------.................. | G07 775 187 142 250 179 Per cent-------------------------.| 57.64 70,71 17.76 12.06 24, 60 16. 33

Less than 2 per cent of these farms are encumbered, but the liens on crops amount to a considerable per cent each year.

Agriculture is the chief occupation of the inhabitants of the county, tobacco being the leading product. Corn, wheat, oats, and potatoes are also raised, together with dairy products and poultry. The following table shows the principal products of the county at each census, 1850 to 1890:

PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS OF PRINCE EDWARD COUNTY, 1850 TO 1890.
1880. 1890.

Products. | 1850. 1860. f 1870. f | * - - - pounds... 2, 571, 850 || 4, 231,797 900, 700 || 2,462,326 1,633,830 Corn. -bushels... 214, 350 233, 833 87, 440 192,462 106,011 Wheat - bushels. . 75,762 79, 521 43, 820 45,838 58,481 Oats ... -bushels. 87,229 122, 126 67, 445 59, 870 43,050 Hay...... --.. tons.. 487 151 268 1,100 2,513 Irish potatoes..... ------- ... bushels : 7,700 7,700 7, 544 5,319 12,737 Sweet potatoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bushels...} 12,454 8,772 4,484 6,323 12, 871 Butter...--------------... --------pounds-- 47, 932 | 67,288 51,791 56,350 | 133, 511

In addition to this agricultural exhibit there is a little manufacturing (a), and there are three lines of railway crossing the county and bringing it into touch with the markets. (b)

The total assessed valuation of real estate and personal property in the county was $2,397,007 in 1890, and on this was raised by taxation the sum of $24,281, making a tax rate of $10.13 per $1,000 of valuation. The money raised was distributed as follows: To the State, $7,192, to the county, $7,191; to the towns, $5,104; to the schools, $4,794. (e)

a In 1890 there were 39 manufacturing establishments in the county, with a capital of $113,285 and an annual output worth $183,362.

b The Norfolk and Western, running east and west through Farmville, the Richmond and Danville, running north and south and crossing the southeastern part of the county, and a narrow-gauge road connecting Farmville and the James River.

c The county received $8,343 as its share of the State school fund. It spent $2,058 For schools it spent in all $13,565, dis

for charity and $429 for roads and bridges.

tributed as follows: Salaries for teachers, $10,894; construction and care of buildThe county has no

ings, $770; libraries and apparatus, $10; miscellaneous, $1,891.
There were, in 1890, 20 paupers in the county almshouse, 4 white and 16 black

debt.
See Eleventh Census.

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