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Constitution, Revenue, and Population.

The whole legislative and executive authority is centred in the Landgrave, who governs through a ministry, divided into five departments, including a secretary for war. The budget for 1862 amounted to 539,507 florins, or 44,959/. income, and 519,687 florins, or 43,307/. expenditure. On Feb. 1, 1862, there existed a public debt of 978,507 florins, or 81,542/.

To the army of the Confederation, Hesse-Homburg has to contribute 333 men. They are raised by conscription, with permitted substitution, and have to serve six years.

The population, at the census of 1861, amounted to 26,817 souls, living on an area of 106 English square miles.

XVI. 1.—LUBECK.

Constitution, Revenue, and Population.

The free city and state of Liibeck is governed according to the constitution of Dec. 29, 1851. The main features of this charter are two representative bodies, the Senate, exercising the executive, and the Biirgerschaft, or House of Burgesses, exercising the legislative authority. The Senate is composed of fourteen members, elected for life, and presided over by two burgomasters, who hold office for two years each, and retire in rotation. There are 120 members in the House of Burgesses, chosen by all citizens who are members of any of the twelve colleges, or guilds of the town. A committee of thirty burgesses, presided over by a chairman elected for two years, has the duty of representing the legislative assembly in the intervals of the ordinary sessions, and of carrying on all active business. The House of Burgesses has the initiative in all measures relative to the public expenditure, foreign treaties, and general legislation; while the Senate, entrusted chiefly with the executive government, has also to give its sanction to the passing of every new law.

The high court of appeal for the four Free Cities of Germany— remnant of the old Hanseatic League—is established at Liibeck. It is composed of a President, nominated by the Houses of Senators of the four cities, and six councillors chosen by the four Houses of Burgesses; the first four by each city in rotation; the fifth alternately by Frankfort and Bremen; and the sixth twice by Hamburg and once by Liibeck.

The budget for 1862 comprised an income of 1,303,371 marks, or 76,663/., and an expenditure of 1,309,017 marks, or 76,997/. Nearly one-third of the revenues are derived from public domains, chiefly forests; another third from excise duties, and the rest mostly from direct taxation. Of the expenditure, one-half goes for the interest and reduction of the public debt, the latter amounting to about four millions and a half marks, or 264,700/. The greater part of this debt dates from the period of the French occupation, in 1806 and following years.

To the army of the Confederation Liibeck has to contribute 679 men, namely 536 infantry, 85 cavalry, and 58 artillery. By a military convention with Oldenburg, of Feb. 26, 1861, the latter country furnishes the artillery against an annual subsidy. The troops are raised partly by conscription and partly by enlistment, substitution being allowed in all cases. The time of service is two years, with eighteen months' additional inscription among the troops of the reserve.

There exists also a militia of burgesses, in which all citizens between the ages of twenty-two and thirty-five are enrolled. The troops thus formed possess, however, but slight military organisation.

According to the census of 1861, the state comprises a territory of 127 square miles, with a population of 49,482. They are all Lutherans, with the exception of about 400 Calvinists, 200 Roman Catholics, and 500 Jews. The State is divided into four districts, namely, first, the city itself, with 26,672 inhabitants; secondly, the suburbs, with 4,045; thirdly, the rural districts—composed of scattered portions of territory surrounded by Holstein and Mecklenburg—with 10,508 inhabitants; and, lastly, the half of the town of Bergedorf—the other moiety being under the sovereignty of Hamburg —with 6,099 souls. The state of Liibeck, as at present constituted, was mapped out by the Congress of Vienna, in 1815, after having formed part of the French department called Bouches de l'Elbe.

Liibeck possessed, at the commencement of 1862, fifty-seven sea-going vessels, among them thirteen steamers. Particulars of the commerce of the free city with England will be found under the head of ' Hamburg,' the fourth of the Hanse Towns.

XVII. 2.—FRANKFORT.

Constitution, Revenue, and Population.

The present constitution of Frankfort-on-the-Main was proclaimed by the Constituent Assembly of the Free City, on December 22,

1854, and accepted by a general vote of the citizens of Feb. 5 and 6,

1855. According to this charter, the government of the commonwealth is exercised by two representative bodies, the Senate, consisting of twenty-one life-members, and the Legislative Assembly, composed of eighty-eight deputies, of which fifty-seven are elected by the burgesses, twenty by the Common Council of the city, and eleven by the inhabitants of the rural districts. Vacancies in the Senate are filled by a ballot-committee of twelve members, six of whom are appointed by the Legislative Assembly, and six by the Senate. A president and vice-president—called Elder Burgomaster and Younger Burgomaster—elected annually, represent the executive authority vested in the Senate. The right of making and altering laws, and that of imposing and distributing financial burthens, belongs solely to the Legislative Assembly. The budget is voted annually.

The budget for the year 1862 comprises an income of 2,576,485 florins, or 214,707/., and an expenditure of 2,224,147 florins, or 185,345/. About one-third of the income is derived from customs duties, and another third from the excise. There is a state-lottery, which produces, on the average, 130,000 florins, or 10,833/., per annum. The cost of government, including army and police, forms more than three-fourths of the whole expenditure; and for educational and ecclesiastical affairs, 118,492 florins, or 9,874/., are set aside. The public debt at the commencement of 1862 amounted to 16,353,000 florins, or 1,362,750/. Very nearly one-half of this debt—exactly 7,868,060 florins—was incurred for the establishment of railways. One million of florins of the capital pays no interest, it having been advanced, under this condition, by the bank of Frankfort, against a permission to issue notes.

The contribution of Frankfort to the German Confederate army is to amount to 1,119 men, nearly all infantry. The whole of this force is raised by enlistment, for periods of four years and two months—formerly six years and two months—under the offer of a bounty of 300 florins, or 25/. The men receive 19 kreuzer, or about 6^-rf. per diem, with increase of pay at the end of ten years' service. It is owing.to the position of the Free City, as the seat of the Germanic Diet, that it has to keep a much larger armed force, in comparison with population, than any other State of the Confederation. The city has also a guard of burgesses, the duties of which, however, are of a strictly civil nature.

The state, according to the census of 1861, has a population of 87,518 inhabitants, living on an area of 43 English square miles. The territory includes eight villages, with 11,928 inhabitants, scattered in the environs of the city. Exclusive of the above population, Frankfort has a federal garrison of 3,666 men, namely 1,116 Austrian, 1,884 Prussian, and 666 Bavarian troops. The religious creed of the civil population, as stated in the census of 1861, is represented by 43,946 Lutherans, 6,864 Calvinists, 15,788 Koman Catholics, and 5,733 Jews. The rest belong to various Christian and other sects. The Jews are comparatively more numerous in the city than in any other State of Europe.

XVII. 3.—BREMEN.

Constitution, Revenue, and Population.

The Free City of Bremen is governed by a Senate of thirty members, acting under the legislative authority of the General Assembly of citizens, sitting under the name of the Biirgerconvent, or Convent of Burgesses. The Convent is divided into committees, and presided over by members of the College of Aldermen, in whom is vested a portion of the executive power. Two burgomasters, the first elected for six years and a half, and the second for four years, direct the affairs of the Senate, through a ministry divided into eight departments, namely, Foreign Affairs, Church and Education, Justice, Finance, Police, Medical and Sanitary Administration, Military Affairs, and Commerce and Shipping. All the ministers are senators.

The public revenue for the year 1862 amounted to 1,642,843 thalers, or 246,426/., and the expenditure to 1,671,251 thalers, or 250,687/. Very nearly one-half the revenue is raised by indirect taxes; while about the same amount is expended for interest and reduction of the public debt. The latter amounted, in 1862, to 11,734,165 thalers, or 1,760,124/. This sum includes a railway loan of four million of thalers, at 4^ per cent., negotiated in 1859. A peculiarity of Bremen is the payment of the income tax, assessed at 1 per cent. of the income on all property above 500 thalers, or 75/. per annum. Only the first five thalers, or fifteen shillings, are paid publicly to the tax-gatherer; and whatever sum is due above this amount, the tax-payer has to throw secretly into a close box with a slit on the top, in such a manner that it is impossible to discover what each individual has actually paid. Notwithstanding this facility for fraud, it is found that the sums annually paid for income tax surpass considerably the government estimates.*

To the army of the Confederation Bremen has to contribute 748 men, of which 101 are cavalry. The whole of the troops of the infantry are enlisted for a term of five years, at a bounty of 200 thalers, or S01., with an annual pay of 40 thalers, or 61., besides board. The cavalry is contributed, according to the terms of a military convention, by Oldenburg, which State also furnishes most of the commissioned officers.

The population amounted, in 1858, to 89,836 souls, and, after the calculations of the registrar-general of births and deaths, had risen, in the year 1861, to 98,575. The state comprises an area

* Kolb, G. Fr., Handbuch der vergleichenden Statistic, Leipzig, 1862, of 106 English square miles, divided into the city proper, with 67,217 inhabitants—according to the returns of 1861; the rural districts, with 20,923; the township of Vegesack, with 3,942 ; and the port and city of Bremerhaven, with 6,493 inhabitants. The territory of Bremerhaven was bought from the Hanoverian government in the year 1827, for the sum of 77,200 thalers, and has proved of great advantage to the State as a seaport.

Trade and Commerce.

Bremen possessed, at the commencement of 1862, a commercial navy of 253 vessels, including 9 screw steamers. The following is the official return of the foreign shipping engaged in the direct and indirect trade at the port in the year 1861 :—;

[table]

The declared value of the imports in 1861 amounted to 68,865,259 thalers, or 11,307,924/.; while the exports during the same period were valued at 64,311,845 thalers, or 10,560,237/. Of the imports, goods to the value of 41,944,235 thalers, or 6,887,395/. came seawards, while the rest was brought by land, or by inland navigation. The exports seawards amounted to 30,545,458 thalers, or 5,015,674/.

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