Sugar and Slavery: An Economic History of the British West Indies, 1623-1775

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Canoe Press, 1994 - Business & Economics - 529 pages
 

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This book covers the changing preference of growing sugar rather than tobacco which had been the leading crop in the trans-Atlantic colonies. The Sugar Islands were Antigua, Barbados, St. Christopher ... Read full review

Contents

Key to Abbreviations
xi
Foreword
xii
Sugar and Slavery
xiii
Preface
xvi
One The Tropic Empire 1 Historians and Histories of the West Indies 1
xx
The Colonial Debate 5
xx
Caribbean Island Economies
11
Economic Growth and the Colonies
14
Laggard Growth 171439
216
Expansion and Growth 174075
222
The Dawkins Estates
224
William Beckford PlanterHistorian
227
The Wealth of Jamaica
229
Conclusion
232
Eleven Slavery and Sugar 1 Introduction
234
Indians and White Servants
235

Conclusion
16
Two Sugar The Inseparable Companion of Tea 1 The Impact of the New World
18
Patterns of Sugar Consumption
20
English Sugar Consumption
21
British and French Sugar Consumption
24
The Rich and the Poor
26
Tea and Sugar
27
Sugar Refining in Great Britain
29
Consumption and Population Growth
30
Scottish and Irish Markets
31
London and the Outports
32
British North American Markets
33
Three The Hated Navigation Acts 16501700
36
Ousting the Dutch
37
The Mercantile Theory of Colonies
40
The Navigation Acts
41
The Planters Discontent
44
The Export Duty
48
Efforts to Close the Loopholes
49
The Sugar Duties in England
50
Conclusion
53
Planter Politics 17011775
54
The Planters Market Strategy
55
Curbing the Interisland Trade
57
The Planter Interest in the House of Commons
58
The Members of Parliament
60
The Planters Strategy in the House of Commons
66
The Sugar Monopoly
71
Conclusion
74
Five
75
Guyana and the Carribbees
77
Problems Projects and Projectors
80
The Courteen Brothers and Barbados
81
Sir Marmaduke Royden and Barbados
82
Early Settlement of St Christopher
84
The Nevis Settlement
86
Montserrat and Antigua
87
Maurice Thompson
88
Sir Martin Noell and Thomas Povey
90
Conquest and Early Settlement of Jamaica
92
Conclusion
95
Six Geographic and Economic Influences 1 Introduction
97
Origin and Dispersal
98
Sugar Production in the American Tropics
100
Location Factors
102
The Role of Livestock
105
Growing the Canes
107
The Art of Making Sugar
112
Stages in the Growth of the Sugar Economy
118
The Geographic Base of Production
122
Barbados The Brightest Jewel in Our Crown of Trade
124
The Physical Setting
125
The Sugar Revolution
128
The Drift Toward Monoculture
134
Conserving the Soil of Barbados
140
The Slave Economy
141
Further Estate Consolidation
143
The Turning Away from Intensive Monoculture
147
Eight His Majestys Leeward Islands Part I St Christopher Nevis Montserrat 1 The Collective View
148
Descriptive Account
149
Christopher Jeaffreson St Kitts Planter
152
Seven
154
The Settlement of the French Lands
155
Further 18th Century Developments
159
Descriptive Account
161
Nevis Merchants and the Sugar Industry
162
The Stapleton Plantations in Nevis
164
The Pinneys of Nevis and Bristol
167
John Herbert and Admiral Lord Nelson
169
Descriptive Account
170
The Political Anatomy of Montserrat
172
Career Profiles of Montserrat Planters
177
The Small Planters of Montserrat
181
Conclusion
183
Nine His Majestys Leeward Islands Part II Antigua 1 Introduction
184
Samuel Winthrop Early Planter and Governor
186
The Slow Recovery from the French Invasion
189
The Plantocracy
191
Economic Structure and Trends 170075
194
Dr Walter Tullideph Scottish Planter
197
Colonel Samuel Martin of Greencastle Estate
200
Descriptive Accounts by Two Scottish Visitors
203
The NearMonoculture Regime
205
Ten Jamaica The Fairest Island 1 The Physical Environment
208
The Early Sugar Industry
210
The War Years 16891713
214
AfroCaribbean Economic History
238
Stages in Caribbean Plantation Slavery
241
The Dimensions of the Slave Trade
245
Britains Leadership in the Slave Trade
249
Africas Ability to Supply Manpower
253
Runaways and Rebels
254
Slavery on Roaring River Plantation
257
The Profitability of Slavery
259
Conclusion
260
Twelve The English Merchant as Banker 1 Introduction
262
Plantation Capital Requirements
264
The High Rate of Capital Depreciation
266
The Importance of Trade Credit
269
DebtorCreditor Conflict
274
The West India Loan Market
278
Conclusion
281
Thirteen The Planters Agent as Banker 1 Introduction
282
17th Century Commission Agents
285
The Credit Act of 1732
288
Changing Financial Methods
290
The Loan Market in the West Indies
294
Capital Drain or Capital Inflow?
295
The Agents Concerned with Jamaica
298
The Agents Concerned with the Lesser Antilles
300
Conclusion
305
Fourteen A Grand Marine Empire 1 The Plantation Base of Trade
306
Dimensions of Trade
308
Trade with the Mother Country and Ireland
311
Trade with North America
314
Trade with Africa and the Informal Empire
316
Trading Methods
319
The Merchant System
322
The London Commission System
328
Ships and Shipping
332
Commission System and Other Branches of Trade
335
Conclusion
338
Fifteen Rum and Molasses in British Imperial Trade 1 Technological and Economic Possibilities
339
17th Century Market Limitations
340
18th Century Markets
342
Markets in the Mother Country
344
The Irish Rum Market
350
Nlicit Trade and Markets in North America
352
Contributory Factors
357
Conclusion
358
Sixteen Planters and Plantership 1 Introduction
360
The Nonconformists
364
The Sephardic Jews
366
The Scotsmen and Irishmen
368
The Professionals and Administrators
370
The Merchants
374
The Art of Plantership
377
Profit and Loss
381
Absenteeism
385
Conclusion
387
Seventeen Booms and Slumps in War and Peace 16231713
389
Fluctuations in the Sugar Industry
390
The Era of Minor Staples
393
The Sugar Revolution
395
The Impact of the Navigation Acts
396
Barbados and the Recession of the 1680s
398
The Leeward Islands and Jamaica
402
Economic Fluctuations in Wartime
404
King Williams War 168997
407
Queen Annes War 170213
409
Conclusion
411
Eighteen The Drive to Monoculture 17141755
415
Postwar Prosperity 171420
419
The Uneven Twenties
422
Recession and Recovery in the Thirties
426
War and Trade 173948
433
Monoculture and Monopoly 174955
439
The New Informal Empire
442
Conclusion
445
Nineteen The Sugar Colonies and the Industrial 1 Introduction
447
The Seven Years War
448
The Ceded Islands
452
The Free Port System
459
The Credit Crisis of 1772
463
The West India Balance of Payments
467
Profits and Absenteeism
470
The Industrial Revolution
475
Slavery and its Critics
479
Appendices
487
Select Bibiography
507
Index
523
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