Sugar and Slavery: An Economic History of the British West Indies, 1623-1775

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Canoe Press, 1974 - History - 529 pages
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Sugar and Slaves presents a vivid portrait of English life in the Caribbean more than three centuries ago. Dunn examines sugar production techniques, the vicious character of the slave trade, the problems of adapting English ways to the tropics, and the appalling mortality rates for both blacks and whites that made these colonies the richest, but in human terms the least successful, in English America.
 

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Contents

One The Tropic Empire 1 Historians and Histories of the West Indies I
1
The Colonial Debate
5
Caribbean Island Economies 1
11
Economic Growth and the Colonies
14
Conclusion
16
Two Sugar The Inseparable Companion of Tea 1 The Impact of the New World
18
Patterns of Sugar Consumption
20
English Sugar Consumption
21
Twelve The English Merchant as Banker 1 Introduction
262
Plantation Capital Requirements 3 The High Rate of Capital Depreciation
264
The Importance of Trade Credit
269
DebtorCreditor Conflict
274
The West India Loan Market 7 Conclusion 234 235 238 241 245 249 253 254 257 259 260
281
Thirteen The Planters Agent as Banker 1 Introduction
282
17th Century Commission Agents
285
The Credit Act of 1732
288

British and French Sugar Consumption
24
The Rich and the Poor
26
Tea and Sugar
27
Sugar Refining in Great Britain
29
Consumption and Population Growth
30
Scottish and Irish Markets
31
London and the Outports
32
British North American Markets
33
Three TTie aerf Navigation Acts 16501 700
36
Ousting the Dutch
37
TTe Mercantile Theory of Colonies
40
TTie Navigation Acts
41
The Planters Discontent
44
The Export Duly
48
Efforts to Close the Loopholes
49
The Sugar Duties in England
50
Conclusion
53
Four Planter Politics 17011775
54
The PlantersMarket Strategy
55
Curbing the Interisland Trade
57
The Planter Interest in the House of Commons
58
The Members of Parliament
60
The Planters Strategy in the House of Commons66
66
The Sugar Monopoly 11
71
Conclusion
74
Five Tie Settlement of the Sugar Colonies 1 England on the Eve of Colonization
75
Guyana and the Carribbees
77
Problems Projects and Profectors
80
The Courteen Brothers and Barbados
81
Sir Marmaduke Royden and Barbados
82
ary Settlement ofSt Christopher
84
The Nevis Settlement
86
Montserrat and Antigua
87
Maurice Thompson
88
Sir Martin Noell and Thomas Povey
90
Conquest and Early Settlement of Jamaica
92
Conclusion
95
Six Geographic and Economic Influences Introduction
97
Origin and Dispersal
98
Sugar Production in the American Tropics
100
Location Factors
102
The Role of Livestock
105
Growing the Canes
107
TTie 4rf of Making Sugar
112
Stages in ffce Growth of the Sugar Economy
118
The Geographic Base of Production
122
Seven Barbados The Brightest Jewel in Our Crown of Trade An Island ofFirsts
124
The Physical Setting
125
The Sugar Revolution
128
The Drift Toward Monoculture
134
Conserving the Soil of Barbados
140
The Slave Economy
141
Further Estate Consolidation
143
Tfce Turning Away from Intensive Monoculture
147
Eight His Majestys Leeward Islands
148
Nine His Majestys Leeward Islands
184
Ten Jamaica The Fairest Island
208
Indians and White Servants
235
AfroCaribbean Economic History
238
Stages in Caribbean Plantation Slavery
241
The Dimensions of the Slave Trade
245
Britains Leadership in the Slave Trade
249
Africas Ability to Supply Manpower
253
Runaways and Rebels
254
Slavery on Roaring River Plantation
257
The Profitability of Slavery
259
Conclusion
260
Changing Financial Methods
290
The Loan Market in the West Indies
294
Capital Drain or Capital Inflow?
295
The Agents Concerned with Jamaica
298
The Agents Concerned with the Lesser Antilles
300
Conclusion
305
Fourteen A Grand Marine Empire 1 The Plantation Base of Trade
306
Dimensions of Trade
308
Trade with the Mother Country and Ireland
311
Trade with North America
314
Trade with Africa and the Informal Empire
316
Trading Methods
319
The Merchant System
322
The London Commission System
328
Ships and Shipping
332
Commission System and Other Branches of Trade
335
Conclusion
338
Fifteen Rum and Molasses in British Imperial Trade 1 Technological and Economic Possibilities
339
17th Century Market Limitations
340
18th Century Markets
342
Markets in the Mother Country
344
The Irish Rum Market
350
7ci7 7acfe and Markets in North America
352
Contributory Factors
357
Conclusion
358
Sixteen Planters and Plantership 1 Introduction
360
The Nonconformists
364
The Sephardic Jews
366
77ie Scotsmen and Irishmen
368
77ie Professionals and Administrators
370
The Merchants
374
The Art of Plan tership
377
Profit and Loss
381
Absenteeism
385
Conclusion
387
Seventeen Booms and Slumps in War and Peace 16231 713
389
Fluctuations in the Sugar Industry
390
The Era of Minor Staples
393
The Sugar Revolution
395
The Impact of the Navigation Acts
396
Barbados and the Recession of the 1680s
398
The Leeward Islands and Jamaica
402
Economic Fluctuations in Wartime
404
King Williams War 168997
407
Queen Annes War 170213
409
Conclusion
411
Eighteen The Drive to Monoculture 17141755
415
Postwar Prosperity 171420
419
The Uneven Twenties
422
Recession and Recovery in the Thirties
426
War and Trade l 73948
433
Monoculture and Monopoly l74955
439
The New Informal Empire
442
Conclusion
445
Nineteen The Sugar Colonies and the Industrial Revolution l756l775 l Introduction
447
The Seven YearsWar
448
The Ceded Islands
452
The Free Port System
459
The Credit Crisis of l772
463
The West India Balance of Payments
467
Profits and Absenteeism
470
The Industrial Revolution
475
Slavery and its Critics
479
Appendices
487
Select Bibiography
507
Index
523
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