Handbook of American Indian Languages, 第 1 巻

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U.S. Government Printing Office, 1911 - 2679 ページ
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目次

Characteristics of American languages
74
Athapascan Hupa by Pliny Earle Goddard
85
Distribution of the Athapascan family
91
2950 Formative elementsContinued
111
3037 PrefixesContinued 35 Second modal prefixes fifth position
118
Pronominal prefixes sixth position
120
3814 Suffixes
121
Temporal suffixes
122
Temporal and modal suffixes
123
Suffixes indicating source of information
124
Adverbial suffixes
125
Roots with four forms
126
Roots with two forms
127
Roots with one form
129
Meaning of roots
132
Tenses and modes
134
5375 Conjugations
135
Class I Conjugation lc
136
Class I Conjugation 2 137
137
Class I Conjugation 4
138
Class II Conjugation lc
139
Class II Conjugation 3d
140
69 Class III Conjugation 1
141
Class III Conjugation 3
142
Class IV Conjugation 3
143
74 Objective conjugation
144
75 Passive voice
146
Comparison of adjectives
147
Text
153
Tlingit by John R Swanton
163
Text
200
44877Bull 40 pt 110 11 161
209
25 Phonetics
210
Grouping of sounds
212
Dialectic differences
213
Grammatical processes
215
Composition
216
Personal pronouns
217
1334 Discussion of grammar
218
Instrumental verbal prefixes
219
Classifying nominal prefixes
227
Principal predicative terms
235
Stems in terminal position first group
237
Stems in terminal position second group
238
Stems in terminal position third group
240
Stems in terminal position fourth group
243
Locative suffixes
244
2326 Syntactic treatment of the verbal theme
247
Semitemporal suffixes
250
Unclassified suffixes
254
Personal pronoun
256
Possession
257
Plurality and distribution
260
30 Demonstrative and interrogative pronouns
261
Adverbs
265
Interjections
266
3539 Vocabulary
268
Numerals
270
Nominal stems
271
Plural stems
276
Haida text Skidegate dialect
277
CONTENTS Page
286
Distribution of language and dialects
287
Grouping of sounds and laws of euphony
290
Grammatical processes
295
Ideas expressed by grammatical processes
296
767 Discussion of grammar
298
Local particles appearing in pairs nos 122
300
Local particlescontinued nos 2362
305
10 Modal particles nos 63135
312
Nominal particles nos 136156
328
Particles transforming verbs into nouns nos 157163
333
Particles transforming nouns into verbs nos 164106
336
Particles that may precede the transitive subject nos 167180
337
Alphabetical list of particles
340
1732 Suffixes
343
18 Pronominal suffixes
348
Demonstrative suffixes
349
2131 Connectives
350
Predicative and possessive connectives
352
2431 Predicative and possessive connectives of the Tsimshian dialect
354
Predicative connectives
355
Distribution and history
563
213 Phonetics
564
Consonants
565
Phonetic laws
566
Vocalic changes
567
Consonantic changes
568
Laws of vocalic harmony
569
8 Consonantic assimilation
570
12 Dieresis and contraction
571
Ideas expressed by grammatical processes
572
1656 Discussion of grammar
575
Modal elements
577
Pronominal elements
580
The postpronominal g
581
The third person dual
583
22 Pronouns of the transitive verb
584
Elements expressing the possessive relation between subject and object
587
Adverbial prefixes
588
Directional prefixes
590
Verbal stems
592
2833 Suffixes
593
Local suffixes
595
Temporal and semitemporal suffixes
596
Terminal suffix
597
Dual and plural
602
Secondary significance of gender
603
44877Bull 40 pt 110 36 561
625
Distribution and dialects
683
Ideas expressed by grammatical processes and forms
690
Algonquian Fox by William Jones revised by Truman Michelson
735
Introductory note
739
Grammatical processes
758
44877Bull 40 pt 110 47 737
833
Text
868
Siouan Dakota by Franz Boas add John R Swanton
875
8637 Position of pronoun
928
3840 Modal suffixes and particles
932
Particles expressing tenses and modalities
933
Teton
936
Articles
939
Demonstrative pronouns
944
Possession
946
Teton
948
Teton
949
Teton
950
Teton text
954
Winnebago text
959
CONTENTS Page
970
Eskimo by William Thalbitzer
971
212 Phonetics
974
Accent and quantiiy
981
Changes of palatal consonants
983
Changes of dental and labial consonant1?
987
Shifting of voiced and voiceless fricatives
988
Shifting of voiceless fricatives and stopped consonants
991
The Greenlandic s sounds
992
Shifting of consonants with change of place of articulation
993
Vocalic shifts
994
Mutation
996
12 Retrogressive uvularization
998
1316 Classes of words base and stem
1002
Base and stem
1003
Examples of bases and stems
1004
Classes of words
1006
1750 Inflection
1007
1829 Nouns
1010
Class II a Plural inflection with shift of stress
1011
20 Class II 6 Plural inflection affected by retrogressive uvularization
1013
21 Class III Irregular plural inflection
1014
Characteristics of the irregularities in the formation of the plural
1015
Absolutive and relative
1016
Local cases
1017
25 Local casesContinued
1019
26 Personal cases or possessive inflection of nouns
1021
Paradigm of the possessive inflection of nouns
1023
28 Irregular possessive inflection
1024
Local cases of possessive forms of nouns
1028
3044 Verbs
1031
31 Synopsisof possessive endings of nouns N and verbs V
1032
Synopsis of verbal modes of conjugation dialect of West Greenland
1036
Mode I Imperative
1038
Mode III Indicative transitive
1039

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62 ページ - In some cases it has been possible to interest educated natives in the study of their own tribes and to induce them to write down in their own language their observations. These, also, are much superior to English records, in which the natives are generally hampered by the lack of mastery of the foreign language. While in all these cases a collector thoroughly familiar with the Indian language and with English might give us the results of his studies without using the native language in his publications,...
24 ページ - Since the total range of personal experience which language serves / to express is infinitely varied, and its whole scope must be expressed by a limited number of phonetic groups, it is obvious that an extended classification of experiences must underlie all articulate speech.
65 ページ - ... being in a sitting posture. In this case, also, the device for generalized expression is present, but the opportunity for its application arises seldom, or perhaps never. I think what is true in these cases is true of the structure of every single language. The fact that generalized forms of expression are not...
24 ページ - In all articulate speech the groups of sounds which are uttered serve to convey ideas, and each group of sounds has a fixed meaning. Languages differ not only in the character of their constituent phonetic elements and sound-clusters, but also in the groups of ideas that find expression in fixed phonetic groups.
63 ページ - It seems, however, that a theoretical study of Indian languages is not less important than a practical knowledge of them; that the purely linguistic inquiry is part and parcel of a thorough investigation of the psychology of the peoples of the world [p.
43 ページ - When we consider for a moment what this implies, it will be recognized that in each language only a part of the complete concept that we have in mind is expressed, and that each language has a peculiar tendency to select this or that aspect of the mental image which is conveyed by the expression of the thought.
65 ページ - Thus the Indian will not speak of goodness as such, although he may very well speak of the goodness of a person. He will not speak of a state of bliss apart from the person who is in such a state.
67 ページ - It would seem that the essential difference between linguistic phenomena and other ethnological phenomena is, that the linguistic classifications never rise 218 into consciousness, while in other ethnological phenomena, although the same unconscious origin prevails, these often rise into consciousness, and thus give rise to secondary reasoning and to re-interpretations.
26 ページ - TO BE NEAR TO, boxta'ka TO POUND, are all derived from the common element xtaka TO GRIP, which holds them together, while we use distinct words for expressing the various ideas. It seems fairly evident that the selection of such simple terms must to a certain extent depend upon the chief interests of a people...
29 ページ - Nevertheless there are certain elements contained in our definition which seem to be essential for the interpretation of a sound-complex as an independent word. From the point of view of grammatical form, the least important; from the point of view of phonetics, however, the most fundamental, is the phonetic independence of the element in question. It has been pointed out before how difficult it is to conceive the independence of the English s, which expresses the plural, the possessive, and the...

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