Hierarchy and democracy
Albert Somit, Rudolf Widenmann
Southern Illinois University Press, 1991 - Political Science - 191 pages
An international gathering of scholars examines democratic theory in the light of recent discoveries by biologists, ethologists, and psychologists.
In this book contributors do not attempt to find a single solution to the theoretical problem of the existence of "elites" in a democratic system, but to make a serious approach to examining various aspects of that problem. Albert Somit raises the political-philosophical problem of the contradiction between the existence of elites and democratic concepts. Benson E. Ginsburg views the heritage of the biological nature of our own species, while Steven A. Peterson analyzes whether dominance behavior and political hierarchies may make democracy an unattainable ideal. James N. Schubert explores the effects of dominance hierarchy in small groups, and Ulrich Müller analyzes the dynamic stability conditions for populations with an egalitarian versus a despotic distribution of power and resources. Jean A. Laponce draws attention to the phenomenon that our "up-down" mental structure (relating people, events, and thoughts) is not neutral, and Odelia Funke, discussing concepts of anarchy and various attempts to successfully live in an anarchistic society, asks whether dominance is an inevitable part of human society. Finally, John C. Wahlke criticizes the rational-choice theory and its attempt to explain voting—the essential element of democracy—arguing that to understand voting a realistic conception of individual choice processes is necessary.
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Origins and Dynamics of Social Organization in Primates
Steven A Peterson
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achieved aggression American Political Science anarchist anarchist commune anarchy animals argue associated assumption basic biological candidates Chicago Chimpanzees coalitions cognitive concept cooperation counterculture cultural democracy democratic government democratic philosophy democratic theory despotic dimension discussion domi dominance behavior dominance hierarchies dominance orderings dominance relations dominance relationships dominance structure dyadic relations economic effects egalitarian elites empirical equality equilibrium evolution evolutionary factors female freedom function genes genetic Ginsburg human nature human society inclusive fitness individual interac interaction issue Journal Laponce leadership liberal logistic growth lower status members majority male Marxism normal normative ontogeny outcome Paiute patterns Peterson political behavior Political Science popular sovereignty population possible preferences primates problem psychology question rank rational-choice theory Reciprocal Altruism relationship role Schubert selection small group decision social behavior social organization Sociobiology Somit spatial species species-typical strategies studies subdominant theoretical tion University Press values voters York